Axia Khondd

axia khondd kxetrofollan ani loksonkhyen zogantolo poilo khondd.

 
Romi
   

Prithvichea 11% vattharacher ani vott'tt bhumyechea 33% vattharacher patll'lla. Zuveamsoit kxetrofoll 4,46,00,850 chovo. Kimi. Loksonkhea i.So. 2000 vorsameren 3,40,00,00,000 cher pautoli. Vixuvvrit'tachea ek onx ut'toreutten zom-i axiacho molexia vatthar yeta, thoimsaun roxiachea kep chelyuskinomoren (78° ut'tor) axiacho dokxinn-ut'tor bhumyecho solog vatthar ani udent-ostont vatthar 26° udentosaun 170° ostont meren asa. Axiacho modlo vatthar mhasagorasaun sumar 3,200 kimi. Poros pois asa. Sury udeupa vottenocho mhunn grikamni hea khonddak ‘ asu ’hem namv dil'lem, tench mukhar axia zalem. Hanga zogantolem soglleant unch dongrachem temok (euhorestt), soglleant chodd kholayechi bhum-i (mrit dorea- Dead Sea) soglleant chodd tapmanachem tthikann (jekbabad), soglleant unnea tapmanachem tthikann (vhorkoyansk), soglleant chodd pausachi nond zal'lem tthikann (cherapunji), soglleant unno paus. Poddpi tthikann, choddant chodd datt lok raupi suvati (inddonexia, chin, bharot) ani soglleant unne lok raupi suvati (vallvonttam, saiberiya) oxim khaxeleponnam asat. Zogantlea monxachi ani dhormanchi utpot'ti axia khonddant soglleant poilim zali oxem mantat. Axia khonddache ut'tor dikek arkttik mhasagor ani dokxinnek hind mhasagor asa. Ostonteuttenocho orbi dorea, tambddo dorea ani suejh kalvo hankamlagun axia ani afrika veglle zaleat. Udenteutten kemchettka zumveancho chomo, kuril, sokalin zumve, zopan, rivkyu, koria, filipins ani inddonexia hankamlagun pesifik mhasagorache orvottsk, zopan, udent chin, dokxinn chin ani inddonexiache dorea vantte modleamodim bondist zaleat.

Hea khonddant bharot, xrilonka, pakistan, bangladex, brohmodex, nepall, bhutan, sikkim',ofgannistan, irann, irak, kuvet, saudi orebia, somyukt orob omir rajeam, kotar,bahrin, oman, dokxinn yemen, yemen, zorddon, siria, ijhrael, lebnan, turkosthan, roxiecho kaim vatthar, mongolia, chin, toivan, ut'tor ani dokxinn koria, zopan, naus, filipins,ut'tor ani dokxinn vietonam', laos, komboddia (khmer), thailondd, molexia, singapur, brunei, inddonexia ani maldivo he dex asat. Brittix sot'tekhala axil'lo hangkang, portugez sot'tekhala axil'lo makavo, timor zuveancho vatthar ani orobstanantole kaim oxasoki-i vatthar hey vatthar yetat. Ijiptocho kaim vatthar axiant asa, zalear kaim zannanchea motan saipros zumvoi axiantuch yeta.

bhumyvrnnon

axia khonddachi rochnnuk samki ghuspagondollachi asa. Axia ani afrika khondd poilim ekttham-i axil'le. Turkosthan te zopanomeren pavil'lea dongram'modlean ttethis ho vhodd dorea axil'lo. Dhortorecher zaupi kitleaxach gozalinchea vhodd porinnamak lagun afrika ani axia ekamekamposun poisaule. Turkosthanasaun udentekodden vochpi dongram'modim kitlexech unchle vatthar toyar zale. Turkosthanache ut'tor dikek panttos ani dokxinn dikek ttoros dongor asat ani tancheamodim anatoliache unchle vatthar asat. Irann-ofgannistan hangachea uncholea vattharank elobrjh, khurasan, hea ut'tor dikentlean yeupi ani dokxinneuttentlea zhagros, makaran hea dongramni modim bondist keleat. Ofgannistanoche udentek zaka zogachem pakhem mhonnttat to pamirocho unchlo vatthar asa. Hanga sogllea dikamni vhodd vhodd dongor patll'lleat. Hindukux, suleman, himaloi, karakorom', kunlun, astin ta,tienoxan, ttransalai, hissar hea sarke dongor mukhel asat. Himaloi ani kunlun hancheamodim tibettoche lambrund dongrabhoxen dispi potthar asat. Kunlun ani tienoxan hancheamodim takla makan hem vallvontti potthar asa. Tienoxanoche ixanyeutten borechoxe dongor samke berig doreameren pauleat. Himaloyache fantte inddonexiameren pauleat. Ixany bhartantleo dongul'leo (garo, khasi, zoitia) toxench brohmodox, ondman-nikobar ani inddonexiantleo dongul'leo ani dongor he mull himaloyachech kuddke zaun asat. Kunlunoche fantte chinant geleat. Tankam thoim chinling mhonnttat. Astin tachea fantteak nanxan ani mongoliantlea fantteak xingan dongor mhunn vollkhotat. Chinantole yunan, sechvan ani mongoliantole gobi vallvontt hem pottharamni ani dongramni bhoril'lem asa. Hangachi bhum-i torantoranchi asa. Bhumykamp, jvalamukhi ani dhortorechea pottant zaupi ghoddnnukank lagun dongor, nhomyo, pottharam. Dongul'leo, sokoile vatthar oxi voir sokoil ani boreach ghuspagondollantlean hangachi bhum-i toyar zalea. Sadaronnoponnan sindhu-gonga nhomyam'modolem moll ani bharti-i upkhondd, orbi dongrivatthar ani irakochem moll, modhy axia, axiabhitorolo roxiyn sokoil'lo vatthar (Lowland) ani pesifik doreadohevele vatthar oxe bhumyeche vantte zamv yetat.

Gonga-sindhu nhomyam'modolem moll hem zogantolem ek vhodd pikall ani sopatt moll mhunn namnek paulam. Himaloyachea sokoilea vattharant vhaun ayil'lea gallaposun tem toyar zalam. Bangla dex, ostont bongal, bihar, ut'torprodex, ponzab, rajsthan ani pakistanantole ponzab ani sindh he vatthar hea mollant yetat. Gonga ani brohmoputra ekamekank mellil'lean asamantole brohmoputra nhoinchea mollacho votthar heach prokarant yeta. Himaloi ho hea vattharantolo dongor. Hea dongrantlean kitleoxoch nhomyo vhamvtat. Hea mollachea sokoilea vattharant dokxinneuttentolo bharot yeta. Hangachi bhum-i modlea vattharant pottharanchi asa zalear doreadegamveli bhum-i sokoil asa.

Orbi dongri vatthar ani irakochem moll ostonteutten asa. Hea vattharank lagun axiacho sombond afrika ani yuropakodden yeta. Hea vattharamni bhumykamp borech zatat. Modhy axiant tibettochem potthar asa.Hachi unchai 4,875 mi. Asa. Roxiantlea sokoilea vattharak lagun yurop ani axia hea don khonddacho sombond yeta. Hea sombondak lagun yurop-axia he donuy ekttham-i dhorun taka yurexia oxem-i mhonnttat. Pesifik doreadegevelea vattharamni udent saiberiya saun molayamerenocho oxem torantoranche vatthar asat. He bhumyechea prokaramvelean ek gozal spoxtt zata ti mhollear ho purai khondd torantoranche fator ani matyecho zaun asa.

hovaman

axeacho modlo bhitrolo vatthar khoinchyai mhasagorasaun 3,200 kimi. Poros pois axil'lean, doreadegamvele vatthar ani khonddacho bhitrolo vatthar hancheabhitor hovamanacho boroch forok asta. Ho khondd boroch unch sokoil axil'lea karnnan ekach okxanxant yeupi vattharanchea hovamanat legit boroch forok asta. Ho khondd boroch unch sokoil axil'lea karnnan ekach okxanxant yeupi vattharanchea hovamanant legit boroch forok asta. Choddxi bhum-i gimachea disamni tapta ani hovecho dab unno zal'leakaronnan thoim doreavelea chodd dabachea vattharantolem varem yeta ani gimacho paus poddtta; ximyachea disamni hoventole thonddsannik lagun bhumyeche dikentlean doreavotten varem vhamvta oxe sadaronnoponnan axiachea hovamanavixim sangu yeta. Ut'toreuttenchea vattharamni him' poddtta zalear dokxinneutten doreamvelean ayil'loya va-yak lagun paus poddtta. Bharot ani agney axiache dokxinn vatthar ani dokxinniuttenchea zumveancher hovaman choddxem uxnn, zalear ut'toreutten tem thondd zait vota.

vonspot

vixuvvrit'ti-i vattharant 60 te 80 mi. Meren vaddpi, sodanch pachvechar aspi ghott lankddache rukh asat. Te nitt vaddot votat ani purai unch zal'lea zagear tanka tengxekodde khandeo yetat. Hea vattharant torantoranchi vonspot melltta. Ekech zatichim zhadda choddxim pollounk mellnat.Erkidd, neche, benul'li, lamb vali hanchi gordi asta, punn aemezhon va kango hangachea ranambhoxen datt ranam nastat. Rukhanchi datti unni axil'lean sureacho ujvadd zomnimeren pauta ani zhompam borinch vaddunk pautat. Doreadegamvelea vattaramni chikhlantolem ran ani udkamlagi vaddpi vonspot dixtti poddttam. Revenchea doreavellancher suru, madd hea sarkim zhaddam borim vaddttat. 200 sem'mi.Poros chodd paus poddpi vattharamni sodanch pachvichar aspi rund pananchim pausachim ranam asat.100 te 200 sem'mi. Paus poddpi vattharamni panam gollpi, rund oxa eka khaxelea prokarochi ranam vaddttana distat. Xal ani sag him zhadda moderachea lankddak upkarotat. Ambo, chich, kazu, ponnos hea sarki follam divpi rukh axia khonddat bo-yach suvatimni asat. Unnea pausachea vattharant khoir, babholl, bel, kouttham, bor hanchim zhaddam chodd promannat vaddttat.Rukh naxil'le vatthar fokot pausalleat pachvea tonnat bhortat nazalear horxim he vatthar suke ani zhaddampeddam viroit astat. Kaim tonnanche vatthar afrikentlea seuhanabhoxen asta. 50 sem'mi. Poros unnea pausachea vattharamni niulanchea zatichim zhaddam vaddttat. Doreadegamvelea kaim bhitorlea vatthamrani supari divpi maddeo disun yetat. Dongranchea kaim vattharamni unchayecher pain, deudar, chinar,nilgiri, ok he rukh asat. Pakistan, bharot, bangladex, xrilonka, brohmodex, inddonixia hea xetancher adaril'lea dexant mullchi ranam borinch noxtt zal'lim distat. Thoim kaim vatthamrani kondde, bet, tonn he sarki vonst asa. Chin ani zopan hea dexantlea hovamanak lagun thoinchim ranam choddxim noxtt zaun geleant. Chinantlea nanxan, chinling hea ani ostontekoddlea dongranchea vattharamni thoddim bhovo ranam tigun urleant. Hea vattharant pachveachar,rund pananche ani suchiprnni Coniferous oxea torekovar rukhanchi bhorsonn asa. Kondde, tel ani mel ‍‌(rongonn) divpi zhaddam soglleutten asat. Zopanantlea dokxinn vattharamni suchiprnni, ghott rukhanchem lankudd unnea upegachem asa. Hea rananche fantte dokxinneuttenchea dongri vattharamni pauleat.Orund pananchea zhaddanche ran ut'toreutten unnem zait vota. Nimanno, samkoch ut'tor dikek ttondd‌ra vantthar asa. Hanga odim'modim samkech unne vilo rukh ani her zhopam distat. Hanga xelloi boroch vaddtta. Kaim vattharamni gimachea disamni borinch fulam fultat, punn vorsacho chodd kall borfak lagun zomin ghott zaun urta.

monzat

himaloyache dokxinneuttenoche ani ut'toreuttenoche oxe axiantlea pranneanche don prokar korum yetat. Dokxinn bharot, xrilonka, thailondd, laos, komboddia, vietonam' ani molaya,inddonexia, hangchea ranamni makodd borech sampddottat. Punn asam', brohmodex, agneyeuttenocho vatthar, grettrosunda hea zumveancher gibon, zalear oranguttan fokot sumatra ani bornio hangach dixtti poddttat. Ximv fokot katthevaddchea ranant asat.Vag himaloyasaun simatra zava ani balimeren dixtti poddttat. Bornio ani xrilonket vag nat.Chit'to ani bibttovag sumatra soddlear sogllekodden asa. Sivhett ani mungus he sarki monzat sogllekodden bhorpur asat. Rettol bhartantlea dongri vattharamni asat, ostontek to ijhrel dixtti poddtta. Bhartant kole borech asat. Potteaptteancho toros sukea vattharamni nodrek poddtta. Him don zonauram udetemvotten disnat. Gadoreddo bharot ani brohmodex hangchea dongri ranamni asa. Molbar soddlear bhartant sogllekodden mervam ani hornnam sampddottat. Himaloyachea dokxinn vattharant nilgai ani char xinga axil'lem horonna sarke zonaur dixtti poddtta. Kaxmir, nepall ani sikkim' hanga kosturimrig asat. Sambroi bo-yach vattharamni asa. Randukor sogllekodden zalear eka xingacho genddo fokot nepall ani asam' hanga asa. Don xingacho genddo brohmodexosaun sumatra, bernio meren axa. Tenasorim', molaya ani sumatra hanga tapir melltta. Hot'ti asam',brohmodex, kornattok, xrilonkam, sumatra oxea bo-yach vattharamni asat. Suknneabhitor mor bhartant soglleak aVi zava dexant sampddottat. Parve, kir, kaulle, chimnni, tit'tor, kogull, moina,kirkiro, hornobil, gorudd, ghonn, sosanno, gidam, mest, tambodd hea sarke pokxi-i bhartachea vattharamni mellttat. Bharot ani sulavesi hanga rolor borech asat. Ddango,flaikechor, bulbul,ttelrobrdd, eriol, broddbil, him khaxeli sounnam axia khonddat asat. Borinchoxim suknnim eka zageavelean dus-ya zagear pois vochpi astat punn himaloyachea addomlleankolagun tim ut'toreutten vochunk xoknat. Udetenkoddlea dokxinn-ut'tor dongrachea vattharantlean mat tim vochunk xoktat. Plouhors, gol, heron, hamysam, vokim hi suknnim oslea prokarochi asat. Mangim ut'tor bhartantlea vhoddlea nhomyamni ani sumatra, bornio hanga asat. Udkantole ani zomnivele kamsou horech asat. Chaneo, xedd'dde, sorop ‍‌(vikhar ani vikh viroit), paro, bebkam hesaroki monzat hea khonddant soglleak dixtti poddtta.

Ttondda vattharant zomin gotthun gel'leakaronnan billamni raupi monzat dixtti poddna.Renddior, arkttik soxem, bhalu hesarokim zonauram hanga asat. Punn tim fokot gimachea disamnich dixtti poddttat. Leming mat ximyachea disamni legitoch asta. Vilograuz ani ttormigon soddlear choddxim suknnim ximyachea disamni dokxinneutten votat. Gimant kidde, sukonnam hanchi gordi zata. Gre plouhor, sonddroling, nott, sonddpaipor sarkim suknnim zollaram khatat. Sosanne,skua sarkim suknni leming khatat. Toinga vattharantoli monzat mhollear topkiri vasveml, bhalu, glotton, ettor, armin, sebol, links, elk, renddior, somso, chani hesarokim asa.Torantoranchim suknnim-i borinch asat. Nhomyo ani tolleamnim nustem torantoranchem asa. Sttepchea tonnachea vattharant zobaa, marmatt, pareapengoheor sarkim billamnim raupi zonauram borich asat.Torantoranchim hornnam tonnachea vattharamni rautat. Bosttardd, kel, grauz, hobi sarkim suknnim pollounk mellttat. Vhoddlea vattharantlea xelleacher jioupi pannopkxi ani toll borech distat.Kaim vellar tollanche chome ekekoddlean dusrekodden vochun vonspot ani xetantoli pikaull khaun kabar kortat. Dongri vattharamni ranmenddhoram, ranbokoddam astat. Tibettchea vattharant yak sarkem zonaur asa. Manchuria ani udent chinchea vattharamni khaxelea zatichim hornna asat. Himaloyantolo him'monis hem ozunomeren ek kuvaddench asa. Chinantlea nhomyamni nustem bo-yach promannant asa. Izhael, siria, orobstan hangachi monzat borichoxi afrikentlea monzatibhoxen asa.

itihas ani rajki poristhiti

dhorm', somskritai, bhaxa, itihasik porompora, orthik ani rajki poristhiti hea gozalinchea adaran axiache char vantte korum yetat. Ostont axia, dokxinn axia, agney axia ani udent axia.Turkosthan, ijhrael, siria, lebnan, irak, irann, zorddon saudi orebia, ofgannistan ani iranni akhatantoli rajeam ostont axiant asat. Hea vattharak modhy udent (Middle East) oxem-i mhonnttat. Yurop ani axia khonddank ani bhumymdhy ani orbi hea don doreank hea vattharan zoddleat. Purvil'lea kallasaun axia ani yurop hancheamodlea veparacho rosto hangasaunoch votalo. Bhumymdhy ani orbi doreak zoddpi suejh kalvo hea vattharant asa. (1869).

Bhugolik nodren ho vatthar choddso remven bhorla. Fokot doreadegancher thoddobhovo paus poddtta.Tebhair yufrittis, taigris ani zorddon nhoinchea degamveli zomin xetouddikhatir upegi poddtta. Ut'tor turkosthan, irann ani ofgannistanoche kaim vatthar; pelesttain, lebnan ani ut'tor siriasaun irak merenocho vatthar pikall asa punn hea vattharachi namna soimik telanchea santthounnik lagun chodd asa.

Irann, irak, kuvet, bahrin, saudi orebia, kotar hea rajeamni zogantole soglleant chodd telache santthe asat. Zogantolem 25% tel ostont axiantlean yeta. Telachea xud'dhikoronnak lagpi bhanddoul, yontram ani borem tontroginean hem choddxem hea dexantolem nasta ani tel vikun mellpi faid'dantolo choddso vantto hangache raza va hukumoxoha ani tanchi sot'ta tigounk modot korpi loxkoracher khorch zata. Punn ijhrael ani turkosthan he tel satthvonk naxil'le dex ud'degodhondeak lagun hea her dexamporos chodd fuddem pauleat. Ostont axiantleo 56% tel kompneo omerikecheo, 29% brittix ani 8% french axat. Uril'leo kompneo choddxeo thollaveo asat.

Dhorm', bhaxa ani vonx hoya gozalimni hea lokanchem jivit borenchoxem sarkem asa. Bhaxik ani dharmik olposonkheakanche promann dorek dexant 20% poros unnem asa. Hangache 95% lok musloman dhormache asat. Ijhraelant mat 89% lok jyu axat. Siriant 13%, lebnanant 19%, zorddonant 6% lok kiristamv dhormache asat. Irannantole 88%, yemenatole 55%, irakantole 50% ani lebnanantole 18% lok musloman xia ponthache asat. Bakichea dexamni choddxe musloman sun'ni ponthache asat.

Fattlea xombor vorsache ostonteche smskritayekodden ayil'lea sombondak lagun hea vattharant borech mullave bodol ghoddle. Vaddtte sorkari sot'tek lagun ani sudaril'lea yeradarichea sadhnank lagun heddgea zomatinchi svotontrotai noxtt zait chol'lea. Novea telxud'dhikoronn ud'degamni ani udkapurounn suru korun xetouddichea ud'degant atam te thirauleat. Novem xikxonn ghetil'lo ani ostontechea somskarancho probhavo zal'lo ek vorg hanga nirmann zait asa. Ho vorg choddso loxkor, sorkari nokri ani her xarantlea ud'degamni mukhar asa. Dexantlea rajkaronnacher hea vorgacho khasa probhavo asa. Punn zanka ostontechea adhunikikoronnache choddxe faide mellil'le nat oso sokoilea pamvddeavelo anik xarantolo modhyomourg samyovadi nazalear 'muslim' brodrohudd' sarkea songhttonatlean apli bonddkhori mukhar haddit asa.

Ostont axiant raxttrovad heach xenkddeasaun ghott zalo. Raxttrovadachi zannvikai choddxi xarantlea lokank zalea hachem khaxeloponn mhollear, ostonteuttenchea dexanchi rajki sot'ta ani somskritai hanchea akromonnancher zap mhunn hea vattharant raxttovad zolmak ailo.Grik sot'ta ani te sot'tek posounn divpi yuropi-i raxttram hanchea add turkosthanant 1918 vorsa mustofa kemal paxa hachea fuddaroponnakhala utthavo zalo. Zorddon, irak, lebnan hea dexantlea raxttovadachi tiddok brittix ani french sot'teadd axil'li. Aiz ijhraelak samrajyovadi dexanchem, khasa korun omerikechea hatantolem baulem mhunn hangache dex hinnsaitat. Iramnnat du-ya mhazhuzantlea brittix ani roxiynanchea kornneank lagun raxttrovadacho zolm' zalo. Porkeamadd hea lokank, khasa korun xikil'lea lokank aizolegit dusvas asa. Brittix ani omerikon loxkoranche toll hangachean haloupakhatir kel'li magnni, kritel karkhaneanche ani suejh kalveachem ijiptan kel'lem raxttriyokoronn (1956) hea sarkea gozalintlean hangchea lokancho raxttrovad sid'dh zata.

Raxttrovadi cholloullink lagun hangachea sultanoxayek boroch tras zalo. Hea cholloullincho porinnam' sogllea dexantlea razancher zalo. 1922 vorsa turkosthanchea razak sot'tevelean kaddun uddoilo. 1952 to ijiptacho raza feoro, 1958 to irakocho raza foizol, 1962 to yemenocho raza ol-bodr haka kaddun uddoilo. Irann ani zorddon hangai sultanoxayeadd bo-yoch cholloulli zaleo. Saudi orebia ani ofgannistanant tea manan chollcholli titleoxeo khor zaunk pauleonat. Rajexai noxtt zalea, toripunn khoincheach dexant lokxayechim mullam kholmeren pavil'lim nat.

Turkosthan, ijhrael hea dexant grik ani orbamadd zoit mellil'lean novo atmovisvas yeunk lagla. Hangachea raxttrovadacher dhormacho boroch probhavo asa. Turkosthanantole kiristamv, orob dexantole jyu ani ijhraelantole orob hanka tea tea dexambhitor ghusmottil'leavori dista.Bo-yach dexamni islami kaide choltat ani dhormakodden sombond axil'lea rajki pokxant chodd tenko melltta.

Ostont axiant borich vhodd vhodd samrajeam zaun gelim. Soglleant mhotvachem samrajy satvea xenkddeantolea islam' dhormank zolm' divpi mohom'mod poigombor ani tachea kholifani ubarolem. Spen saun bhartomeren patllil'lem hem samrajy teravea xenkddeant kabar zalem, punn islam' dhorm' hea vattharant thir zalo. Teravea xenkddeauporant turkamni ettomon samrajeachi thapnnuk keli. Tantlea suleman razachem (1520-66) samrajy yuropantlea hongerisaun udentek patllil'lem. 15 vea ani 16 vea xenkddeant yuropiamni axia ani afrika khonddat vosahotinchi thapnnuk korun hea samrajeacher haddlo. Ud'degik kranti ani bodlot vochpi tontrachea sondrbhat yuropi-i dexanchem bollgem vaddlem ani ettomon zamrajy kabar zaunk lagle. Ijiptocho gouhornor mohom'mod oli (1805-49)svotontrotayechea margar ailo. 19 vea xenkddeant loxkori bollgem vaddoupakhatir french ani zormon tontrogineanachi modot zali. Ostontekoddlean xikxonn gheun ayil'lo novo vorg sulemanachea odhikarancher bondi ghalpachi magnni korunk laglo. 1906 vorsa tornattea turkanchea bonddak lagun novem somvidhan toyar zalem. 1911-12 che loddayent turkosthanan aplo yuropantolo vatthar vogddailo. Poilea mhazhuzant zormonivangodda turkosthanakoi har khauchi poddli.

Tornattea turkanchea bonddauporant raxttrovadi vicharank lagun xikxonnant turki bhaxecho vapor zaunk laglo. Sorkari nok-yamni ani loxkorant turki monxank poili suvat mellunk lagli.Mustofa kemal ataturk hea loxkori odhika-yachea fuddaroponnakhal turkamni utthavo keleauporant ettomon sot'ta sompli ani 1922 to turki lokost'tak rajy toyar zalem. Hea bonddak lagun seuhor koblat (1920) turkosthanavangodda korun mhazhuzant jikhil'lim raxttram turkosthanache kuddke korunk sodtalim, tanka hat chollit boschem poddlem.

Poilea mhazhuzauporant siria frenchanchea hatakhala axil'lo. Tannim hea dexache don kuddke kele. Thoinchea kiristamvancho vatthar kuxik kaddun tripoli, boirut ani saiddon bondor hea vattharak lebnan hem namv dilem.Yuropi-i jyu zomatinche mhollear jhionistt raxttri-i cholloullicho porinnam' mhunn ijhrael raxttrachi nirmonni zali. Turkamni pelesttain jikhun ghetlea uprant nirvasit zal'le jyu lok yuropant sogllekodden patllil'le. Punn raxttriytvachi zannvikai tigoun dourun teoddor hertosol (1860-1904) chea fuddaroponnakhala dhionistt lokanchi cholloull suru zali. Tanka pelesttainant somest jyunkhatir svotontr rajy zai axil'le. 1917 vorsa brittixamni hea svotontr rajeachea ostitva mankoitai dili ani chonddat chodd jyu lok hanga yeunk lagle. 1919 te 1947 him vorsam mholear brittix, jyu ani porob hancheamodim zal'lea himsok zhogddeanchim vorsam. Orbanchea viredhaadd jyu lokank khor zhuz divchem poddlem. 1947 vorsa pelesttainoche kunddke korun jyu lokank tanchem rajy divonchem oxi oxi suchounni somyukt raxttramni keli; punn orbank ti many zali na. 14 me 1948 disa brittixamni pelesttailonantlean bhair sorpachem tharailem ani dus-yach disa ijhraelan apsea svotontr dexachi ghoxnna keli. Ten'na xezarchea orob dexantolem soiny dhuzamollar demvlem punn ijhraelan tankam haroile. Ijhrael ani orob raxttram'modolem zhuz aizomeren chaluch asa. Omerikechea palvan ijrael ek bollixtt dex zala ani ekloch soglleamlagim zhuz korta.

Ofgannistan ani saudi orebia hea dexantoli poristhiti matxi veglli asa. Her raxttromni noxtt zal'leo heddgeo zomati, magaxil'lo somaz ani rajexayecheo porompora hea dexamni heramporos chodd kall tigun urleo.

Ostont axiantole dex eka novea moddnnacher asat. Porni somazoveustha ani somstha moddot chol'leat. Punn tancho zago ozun nove somazoveusthen gheunk na. Rajexai kabar zalea, punn pokxopdhdoticher adaril'li lekxai ani sorkar ozun thir zaunk na.

Antororaxttri-i thoracher irann-irak zhuzak borench mhotv ailem. Hea zhuzacho porinnam' telachea veparacher zalo. Ijhrael, lebnan, zorddon, saudi orebia hanchem dhoronn omerikek sadaronn borem asa, punn kallapromann ani poristhitipromann tem bodlota. Tatuntlea tatunt ijhrael omerikek soglleant chodd lagincho dex. Irannant khomeni sot'ter ailea uprant omerikekodden dusmanokai kel'li. Siria, irak hachim dhornna roxiek borim asat. Yassor orafotachi pelesttain mukti songhttona vanxik prosnancher orbancho ekchar korunk vavurota, zalear godafi sarkea monxacher zogantolim borinchoxim khobramptram antororaxttri-i dhoronn dexambhitorlea poristhitisarokench chonchol ani ondadhundichem asa. 1990 to irakan kuvetacher ghuri ghali ani to dex aplea xekatolla haddlo. Irakacho raxttradhyokx sod'dam' husen hannem aplea dexachem soiny thoimsaun kaddunk nhoikar dil'lean antororaxttri-i mollar hea vattharantlea dexanchea porraxttri-i dhornnancher sogllea somvsaracher dolle lagun asat.

Bharot, pakistan, bangladex, xrilonka, nepall, bhutan he soglle dex dokxinn axiant yetat. Loksonkhea ani vistarache nodren haka upkhondd mhonnttat. Aplea khaxeloponnak lagun bhartacho probhavo hea sogllea vattharant chodd asa. Ut'tor dikentlea himaloyak ani dokxinnechea doreak lagun ho vatthar axia konddakoddlean matso vegllo zala.

Vingodd vingodd svorupachi somaz rochnnuk hem dokxinn axiachem ek khaxeloponn zaun asa. Kitlexech dhorm', bhaxa, voms ani zatizomati hanga asat. Bhartant somvidhanan 14 bhaxank manyotai dilea ani teapros chodd kitleoxoch bhasa hangache lok uloitat ani boroitat. Pakistanant puxtu, ponzabi, urdu, sindhi ani boluchiheo mukhel bhaxa. Xrilonkent simhli ani tamill bhaxa uloupi lok asat. Bhartant ani nepallant hindu, pakistan ani bangla dexant musloman ani xrilonkent hindu ani kiristamv olposonkhy asat.Xrilonkent musloman olposonkhy asat. Tebhair dorek dhormant kitlexech ponth, samprodai ani zati asat. Esttriloidd, drovidd, ary, mongol hea vonxache lok hanga asat.

Bhartachea kaim vattharamni poilim gonnrajeam axil'lim. Punn choddxa vattharamni rajexai choltali. Razachea odhikaracher mat sobha, somiti, zativeustha, brahmonnourg, montrimonddoll,razodhrm' hea sarkea gozalimni moreada ghali. Purvil'lea kallant hanga dhormosomstha ani rajyosomstha ekmekamsaun veglleo axil'leo.Islam' dhorm' bhartant soglleant poilim orob vepa-yamni haddlo. Tache poilim hindu, boudhd, zoin he dhorm' hanga axil'le. Punn islam' dhormacho prosar choddso muslomani sot'techi thapnnuk zalea uprant zalo. Musloman razamni sumar 700 vorsam bhartantlea lhan vhodd vattharancher xek gazoilo. Tea kallant sot'techi zobrodsti, poixe ani protixttha haka lagun bo-yachxa lokamni dhormantoram kelim. Hindu-musloman hanchea modlea sombondank ourongojeb sarkea dhormonixtth ani pornea motancho prosar korpi razak lagun bada aili. Bharti-i vastukola, xilp,songit, chitrokola, bhaxa ani sahity hancher muslomani razouttincho boroch probhavo disun yeta.

Xrilonketole simhli lok 3,000 vorsampoilim bongalchea vattharantlean thoim aile asumye. Tache uprank 11 te 13 vea xenkddeant dokxinn bhartatlea tomill razamni ghal'lea ghureank lagun tanka hea zumveanchea modim ani dokxinneutten vochchem poddlem. Ut'tor ani udent vattharamni tomill lok borech rautat.

Bhartant ani xrilonkent brittixamni aple sot'techi thapnnuk keli. Deddxim vorsanchi vosahotovadan hea donuy dexanchea fuddaracher boroch porinnam' zalo. Bharot poilech fautt ektontri rajyokobharakhala ailo. Bhartacheo charoi dikantleo ximo brittixamni tharaileo. Novem ostonteche podhdotichem xikxonn divn tamnni bhartant nokroxahichi poromporam chalu keli. Novea xikxonnak lagun raxttrovadache vichar xikil'lea lokam'modim paule ani svotontrotai cholloullichem fuddaroponn heach vorgakodden ailem.

Inddiyon nexnol kangres (1885), silon nexnol kangres (1919) hea sarkea songhttonanchea magnneank lagun 1909, 1919, 1935 hea vorsamni novenove sudaronna korpi kaide brittaxamni lagu kele. Svotom6tayekhatirochi loddai bo-yach nettan chalu zali. Itle mojgotim xikxonnacho purai faido ghenaxil'lean ani sonkhyen komi axil'lean hindum'mukhar apunn tigchena oxem musloman fudda-yank disunk laglem ani 1906 vorsa muslim' ligchi thapnnuk zali. Brittixamni futtir prourit'tink modot korun hindu ani musloman hancheabhitor dusmanokai vaddoili. Kangres ani muslim' lig hanchemodolem ontor vaddunk laglem ani tacho porinnam' mhunn 1940 vorsa lahor hanga muslim' ligan svotontr pakistanochi magnni keli. 1947 to svotontrotayevangodda bharot ani pakistan oxe bhartache don kuddke zale. 1948 vorsa svotontrotai mell'lli.

Svotontrotaye uprant bharot, pakistan ani xrilonka hamnni somsdi-i lokxai apnnaili.Venchnnukam uprant hanga raxttri-i sorkarachi thapnnuk zali. Punn bharot ani xrilonka hanga te somsdi-i lokxayechi mullam ghott zalim, zalear pakistanant lokxayesaun hukumoxayekodden rajkaronnachi vatt pauli. 1971 vorsa bharot ani pakistan hancheamodim zhuz pettlem ani uprant bangla dexachi nirmonni zali. Bharot ani pakistanache sombond samkech dusmanokayeche axil'le te il'le il'le bodlot geleat. Punn donuy dexamodim toxi khasa ixttagot ozun zaunk na. Xrilonkebhitor 1956 uprant bondronaike hachea pokxan simhli bhaxa ani boudhd dhorm' hankam mhotv dilem, ten'na tomill feddrol pokxan tomill lokankhatir vegllo prant maglo. Teavellar suru zal'lem tem zhunz 1980 uprant chodd pettlem ani hem zhunz soddoupakhatir zoivrdhonechea sorkaran barot sorkarachi modot gheun thoim bharti-i soiny haddlem. Toripunn tomill-simhli hanchea modlo prosn ozun puraiponnan suttunk na.

Hea tinuy dexamvangodda bangla desamukharoi tin mullave prosn asat te mhollear - orthik udrogot, adhunikikoronn ani raxttri-i ekchar. Raxttri-i ekcharachea prosnacher bhartasarkea dexant tor zollim'mollim cholloulli ani zhuzam chaluch asat.

1962 to, bharot-chin hancheamozogotim zalea loddayeuporant bharot ani roxia hanchi ixttagot vaddik lagli. Dusreutten pakistan ani chin hanchemodim bori ixttagot zali. Bharot-roxia bo-ya sombondacho porinnam' mhunn 1971 vorsa hea donuy dexam'modim 20 vorsanchi ixttagotichi koblat zali. Aiz hea upkhonddantlea dexam'modim arot soglleat chodd fuddarola. Olipt raxttr porixod sarkea songhttonantlean tannem her dexankodden ixttagotichem sombond vaddoileat. Hea upkhonddacher fuddaril'lea raxttranchi asa.

Brohmodex, thailondd, laos, komboddia (khmer), dokxinn ani ut'tor vietonam', molexia, singapur, inddonexia ani filipins he dex agney axiant asat. Ho vatthar zori yuropayedo asa tori yuropachi loksonkhea tacheaporos chodd asa. Inddonexia hoch dex matso chodd loksonkhyecho. Her dexanchi loksonkhea tancheavistarachea manan samkich unni asa.Hangacho choddso vatthar datt ranamni bhorla. Xetouddikhatir upegi poddpi zomin 16% te 20% merenoch asa. Toripunn on'nachi nireat korpi axia khonddatolo ho mukhel vatthar zaun asa.

Boudhd dhorm' ho hangacho mukhel dhorm'. Molexia ani inddonexiant mat musloman chodd sonkhyen asat. Filipins hanga kiristamv lok chodd sonkhyen asat. Vingodd vingodd vonxache lok hea vattharant rautat. Molexiant 50% lokoch fokot moley asat. Hea dexant 39% lok mull chini zalear sumar 9% bhartantole. Brohmodexantoi 9% lok bharti-i vonxache, 5% chini ani 7% her vonxache asat. Punn mongol vonx sadaronnoponnan hanga choddso dista.

Ho vatthar zogachea doreantlea veparimargacher axil'lean taka borench mhotv asa ani thoim bo-yach somskritayanchi bhorsonn zalea. Bharot ani chin lagim axil'lean hea dexanchea somskritayancho probhavo hea vattharancher disun yeta. Her vattharamporos chinacho probhavo inddochainant (laos, komboddia, vietonam') hanga dista. Hea probhavak lagun zava hangasorolem xoilendr (782-1474) ani mojpohit (1294-1520), sumatra zuveamvelem xrivizoi (400-800), komboddiantolem khmer (550-1295) ani onkor (801-1432), brohmodexant pengu (1287-1539) hea rajeanchi thapnnuk zaunk pauli. Punn him rajeam songhttit axil'lim oxem disna. Somajik va orthik bodol ghoddoupachi xokt tanchealagim naxil'li. Agney axiantole aiche rajveusthechem svorupoi borenchoxem dubllem asa. Rajeambhitor rajyokrto vorg ani bhouzon somaz hancheamodim borench ontor asa. Osleach prokarochem ontor gamvgiro bhous ani ostontekoddole somskar zal'lo xarantolo xikil'lo vorg hanchemodim ozun dista. Poilim bharti-i somskritayecho probhavo rajyokrteancher chodd axil'lo.

Ostontekoddlean zogakodden dhormoprosar ani vepar hea don gozalink lagun hea vattharacho sombond ailo. Hacho filipinsochea somazacher khasa porinnam' zal'leachem dista. Spenix lokamni hanga kiristamv (kethlik) dhorm' ani somrzaxai haddli. 19 vea xenkddeant hea vattharant vosahotovadachi survat zal'leachem dista. Brohmodex molaya, singapur, ut'tor bornio hankam brittixamni aplea xekatolla dourole. Inddonexia hi ddoch lokanchi vosahot zali, zalear inddochainacher french sot'ta choltali. Omeniken filipins zumve 1898 vorsa spenacher zoit melloun aple kele. Hangachea somazacher ani orthoveusthecher vosahotovadach borech poisul'le porinnam' zale. Britton, frams, holondd ani omerika hea charuy samrajyovadi dexanchi hanga xek gazoupachi podhdot veglli asli. Brittixamni porni veustha moddun tea zagear nokroxai haddli, xikxonnachi survat keli, ekafattlean ek oxeo rajki sudaronna keleo. Protinidhik lokxai somstha nirmann zaleo. Dekhik – brohmodexant 1911 vorsa novi rajyopdhdot aili, 1937 vorsa sogllea prouddh dadleank motdanacho odhikar mell'llo. Oxetoren svotontrotai mellche poilinch rajki pokx, fuddari ani rajki somstha nirmann zaleo. Svotontrotai mell'lleauporant lokxayecho adrx hangachea fudda-yamni lokam'mukhar dourole.bharat ho ashiya khandatlo savsaratlo vohdlo lokshay aslelo desh aasa.

Hea urfattem ddo lokamni inddonexiantole paromparik odhikari ani tanche zage toxech dourole. Paromparik kaide, ruddhi, kullanche ani gamvanche hokk hea sarkeo soglleo porneo gozali samballun douleo. Bhailem xikxonn fokot moreadit svorupant unchelea pamvddeavelea lokank dilem. Hakalagun inddonexiant svotontrotayeuporant khoinchey eke khasa rajyopdhdoticho adrx urlo na.

1863 te 84 meren laos, komboddia, (khmer/kampuchia) ani vietonam' framsachea hatant axil'le. Inddonexiabhitor, khasa korun vietonamant french somskritayecho prosar korpache yotn zale.

Omeriken survekosaun svotontrotayechem sopon filipinsochea lokam'mukhar dourun pokxanche thapnnukek ani rajki fuddaroponnak fattboll dilem. 1907 vorsa lokamni venchun kaddil'le vidhanosobhechi thapnnuk zali. 1937 vorsasaun rajki fuddaroponnak chodd mhotv ailem. Rajki mollar mellil'le svotontrotayek lagun filipinsant lokxayechim mullam borim ghott zalim.

Ostontechea samrajyovadheanche sot'ta sortintlean thailondd vattaulo. French ani brittix vosahotinchea vattharantolem ek rajy mhunn taka manyotai mell'lli. Vosahotovadachem sonkxtt yeuchem nhoi haka lagun hangachea razamni thoim bo-yoch sudaronna keleo.

Hea sogllea vattharankodden samrajyovadi dexancho sombond veparak lagun ayil'lean hangachim xaram veparachim ani proxasonachim kendram zalim. Ud'degodhondeak lagun toyar zal'lim xaram samkinch unni asat. Budhdijivi ani xikxit vorg xaramni rauta.

Vosahotovadavangodda zopanachea ghureamni hanga borech bodol ghoddeun haddle. Mhazhuzavellar zopanan ho sogllo vatthar aplea hatkhala ghetlo. Dorek dexant svotontrotai melloupachi itsa nirmann zali; hekhatir nove fuddari udele. Zopanan tankam tenko dilo ani hea dexambhitor mukti soiny ubarunk modot keli. Mhazhuzachea kallant vietonam', brohmodex, inddonexia, filipins hea dexantlea fudda-yamni svotontrayechi ghoxnna keli. Mhazhuzak lagun samrajyovadi dexanchem bollgem unne zal'lem, hacho faido gheun brohmodex, inddonexia ani filipins he dex purai toren svotontr zale.

Inddochainant mat frenchamni omerikechi modot gheun thoinchea raxttrovad'dankodden boroch kall zhuz dilem. Choddxem zhuz ut'tor vietanamantlea ho chi minhochea fuddaroponnakhala nirmann zal'le komyunistt songhttoneadd axil'lem. Nimannem 1954 vorsa dyen vyen-fu hanga french soineachi har zali. Tache uprant jiniuha hanga antororaxttri-i porixodent vattaghatti zaun laos, komboddia (kampuchia) ani vietonam' hankam svotontrotai mell'lli. Vietonamache don kuddke zale. Roxia ani chin sarke komyunistt dex ani omerika hancheamodim cholotlea sortibhitor vietonam' modim poddlo. Ut'tor ani dokxinn vietonam' hanchemodim borich loddai zali. Dokxinn vietonamak palou divchea nimtan omeriken ut'tor vietonamaadd zhuz suru kelem. 1973 vorsa omeriken koblat korun ut'tor aऩi dokxinn vietonamamodim xant'tai haddli.

Molaya ani inddonexia hea dexantoi komyunistt pokx borech bollixtt asle. Molayant komyunistt pokxant khor zhuz manddlem, punn brittixancho palou gheun thoinchea sorkaran hea pokxacher zoit melloilem. Inddonexiant 1960 uprant raxttradhyokx sukarno hannem komyunistt pokxak sot'tebhitor ghetlo. Punn hacher sontuxtt no zaun komyunisttamni bondd suru kelem ani inddonexiyon sorkaran khala uddoun loxkoran hozaramni komyunisttank marun uddoilem.

Roxia ani omerika hea don mohaxktinche sortint hea vattharantlea dexanche porraxttr dhoronn chepun urlam. Ekmekam'modoli dusmanokai hoi hea vattharacho ek mukhel prosn asa. Inddonexia ani filipins hamnni molexiantlea saravak ani hea vattharancher aplo odhikar sangla. Komboddia ani thamylondd hanchemodim onkor deullache malkevelean zhogddim choltat. Chinachea vistarovadi dhornnacho hea sogllea dexank bhom-i asa, punn ekamekam'modlea dusmanoponnak lagun te ekmekank modot korpache poristhitint nat.

Chin, zopan, ut'tor ani dokxinn koria he udent axiai dex asat. Chin ani zopan axia khonddant soglleamporos bollixtt asat. Chinachi somskritai samki porni. Her axiantlea dexamporos hanchea adhunikikoronnak ostontekoddlea dexancho hatbhar unnoch lagla. Tancheamodim chinak aple samyovadi vicharodharek lagun chodd mhotv mell'llam, zalear zopan ud'degik krantintlean nirmann zal'le aple orthik sompt'tik lagun bollixtt dex zala.

Zopan ho sumar 3,400 zumveancho dex, zalear chin ho vistaran boroch motto axil'lo dex. Hea dogamymodim sumar 760 kimi. Cho dorea axil'lean zopanak porki sot'techo bhom-i na.Dus-ya mhazhuza uprant omerikekoddlean zopanak bhirant nirmann zal'li, punn 1945 cho addvad soddlear zopan sodanch svotontr dex mhunn urlo. Hea veglleponnak lagun thoim raxttri-i ekcharachi zannvikai chodd khor asa.

Zopan ani chin hankam purvil'lea kallasaun ekech somskritayecho lavo zalo. Zopanocher poilimsaun ekach rajghornneache raza rajy korit aileat, taka lagun hem rajghorannem tea raxttrachi kuru zaun gelam. Ekunnisavea-visavea xenkddeant zopani raxttri-i osmitai ani raxttrovad heo gozali rajghoranneak samkeo lagincheo uril'leo. Punn chinant i.So.Po. Dusrea xenkddeantolea razamsaun te visavea xenkddeantolea manchu razameren kitlinxinch rajghorannim sot'ter ailim. 1949 uprant chin lokost'tak rajy zalem.

Vistarak lagun chinantoli poristhiti rajy choloupak borich koxttanchi zaun gel'li. Ut'tor dikentlean yeupi ghureank lagun purvil'lea kallant sumar 2,400 kimi. Lambayechi vonnot bandchi poddli. Paromparik chinant konfyuxiyosoche xikounnicho probhavo axil'lo. Hea xikounneampromann razan somyman rajy cholouchem oxi opekxa ballgil'li. Poilimsaun hanga monxaporos somazak ani hokkamporos kortoveak chodd mhotv axil'lem.

Zopanant 9 vea xenkddeasaun razakodden sot'ta samkich unni axil'li. Sot'techo bhog ani vapor choddxe sordaruch ghetale. 1603 meren sot'techem puraiponnan kendrakoronnoi zaunk paulemna. Tacheuporant thoim ekach razachi kendri-i somrzamoxai nirmann zali. Hatunt tokugava ghoranneacho mukheli ‘xogun’ mhollear sot'ter yeupi vonxporomporagot odhikari astalo. Somazant char vorg axil'le. Samurai (zhujpi), xetkar, karagir ani vepari.Chini poromporepromann budhdijivi, sorkari odhikari ani sordar he vorg unchelea pamvddear axil'le. Sorkari porikxank bospacho konnakoi odhikar naxil'lo. Punn hea porikxamni zoitiunt zaupi bhurgim unchelea vorgantolim ani girest astalim.

Rajexayichea sortea kallant 1911 vorsa chinant moreadit svorupant lokxai aili, punn unchelea pamvddeavelea lokancher tacho vhoddloso porinnam' zaunk na. Son-yet-sen (1866-1925)hea raxttri-i fuddeareanoi lokxai yeuche poilim lokank xikxonn divpi oxa vorgache hukumoxayechi goroz asa oxem sanglem.

Aplea vhodd vistaran lagun ani somskritayechea porneponnak lagun chini lokam'modim ek prokarocho atmokendritoponna axil'lo. Tanchea motan somskritayechem zog fokot chinapurotench moreadit axil'lem. Chin mhollear zogache sot'techem kendr oxem tankam distalem.

Ostontechea dexankodden ayil'lea somprkache zopan ani chinacher vingodd vingodd porinnam' zale. Ostontekodden ayil'lea sombondam uprantoi zopani porompora bond poddleo nat punn tatuntleanuch novea zopanochi nirmonni zaunk pauli. Chinant tache urfatte porinnam' zale. Chini somaz ani rajyoveusthechi rochnnuk bodlunk lagli. 1854 vorsa omerikon komanddor peri hannem zopanak ostontechea dexamlagim vepar korchekhatir mukhar kaddlo, ten'na ostontechea tontrogineanachem ginean tanka mell'llem. Novean yeupi ud'dek-dhondeak lagun nokroxayechi goroz poddli. Lokxikxonn, soktichem loxkori xikxonn, ud'degodhonde, novim yeradarichim sadhnam hanchi survat zali. 1889 vorsa novem somvidhan many zalem. Te promann raza zori soglleant voir aslo toripunn odhikari, sordar, vepari, bhanddoulodar hanchemodim sot'tekhatir sort choltali. 1937 to raxttrovad'danchi ani loxkori odhika-yanchi sot'ta vaddil'lean zopanan chinacher ghuri ghali.

Veparak lagun chinacho sombond zogakodden poilimsaun aslo tori manchu razanchea kallant bhaile somskritayecho probhavo chinacher poddlo. Ostontechea dexam'modim choltole sot'tasrtik lagun chin khoinchyai eka dexachi puraiponnan vosahot zaunk paulo na; punn 1949 meren orthik nodrentlean tacho boroch faido samrajyovad'damni ghetlo. 1839-42 chea meren zal'lea ofuchea zhuzamuporant chinavangodda tin-tsin koblat korun samrajeavad'damni boroch faido melloilo. 1894-95 chea zhuzavellar zopanan tor poilinch formosa ani her chini zumveancher zoit melloil'lem.

Samrajyovadeamadd dusvas chinant disanodis vaddik lagtalo. 1911 chea bonddant son-yot-sen chea fuddaroponnakhala lokamni manchu rajexai khala uddoili. Komintang he son-yet-sen chea songhttonen chinant poilem raxttrovadi sorkar haddlem. Rosiyn kranti uprant kam'mittrn he antororaxttri-i samyovadi songhttonen fuddakar gheun chinant samyovadi pokxachi thapnnuk keli. 1923-24 vorsa komintang ani 1921 to thapnnuk zal'lo samyovadi pokx hanchi aghaddi toyar zali. Punn 1927 to chong-kai-xek hachea fuddaroponnakhal komintang ani samyovadi pokx veglle zale.

Samyovadi pokxak mao-tse-tung sarkea fuddaroponn mell'llem ani chinache poristhitipromann marksovadacho thoim obheas korun samyovadi pokxan 1949 vorsa kranti keli. Samrajyovadi dexamlagim chinan aple sombond toddle. Samyovadi pokxachea hukumoxayekhala orthik mollar chinan borich udrogot kelea. Aiz axia khonddantoli chin hi ek mukhel xokt asa. Roxiekoddlean vegllo zaun her dexam'modim cholpi samyovadi cholloullink fattboll divpanchem toch dhoronn axil'lem. Punn 1976 vorsa maok moronn ailea uprant chinachem porraxttr dhoronn bodlot asa. Omerika sarkea dexantolem bhanddoul haddun chinant ud'degodhonde bandpachem kam' cholta. 1963 vorsa bhartakodden zal'le loddaye uprant chin ani bhartache sombond samke poisaul'le. Halim halinch te sombond porthun lagim yeunk lagleat ani 1989 vorsa kai adim bhartachem pontprodhanan chinak dil'le bhettintlean tem disumn yeta. Antororaxttri-i thoracher axiantlea ghoddnnukank borench mhotv asa.

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