Chad

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Chad
Well of the Young Girls in the Ennedi Mountains - northeastern Chad 2015.jpg
kian
Chad (orthographic projection).svg
sintuqi squ kian12°06′N 16°02′E
kinbhci1,284,000 km2
qalangN'Djamena
ke
Arabic, French
Linpgan squliq
16,244,513
Pinqasan ryax nakoka
11 na tay mspat byacing na qutux kawas
sinnhen
Cyorokay44.1%
Islangcyaw51.8%
ungat sinnhen2.9%
binah1.2%
ryax nqu kian
UTC+1
pposa giqas nqu zyuwaw
.td

Chad (查德) hya’ ga cyux maki’ tay 15 00 N, 19 00 E na Xweco syuw.

labah Chad
Chad
tobun na kyokay na Bako
minanaq na ngasal na Cat'
mwuro na stopaw pi'an

kwara’ kinghciyan niya’ 1.284 million sq km (maki’ tay 21ginkgan kin wahci’)

(kinwhci’ niya’ ga 1,259,200 sq km , kinwhci’ na lawsayan wsilung hya’ ga 24,800 sq km)

Kinkhmayan kwara’ squliq hya’ ga 11,852,462.

Pinbcyan naha’ sni’ naha’ rhzyal hya’ iy pqmahun hya’ ga 39.60% , lhlahuy hya’ ga 9.10%, sni’ naha’ sa pptzyuwaw sa bzinah hya’ ga 51.30%.

Chad(查德)

Puqing binyaqan kay語源

mtnaq lalu maha ki 查德湖,kay qani ga kahu binyaqan kay na 卡努里語Sádǝ,imi nya ga languw、glabang nqu qsya。

yuwaw nqu sraral 歷史

zik nqu kungyan 7000 kawas,maki squ mkura tltu rhyal na Chad qani ga kwara ka baybih naqu qqnxan nya ga skblaq ki’an nqu  ssquliq , memaw wayl si txan tmang ssquliq nya te rhyal qani .taqu Chad qani ga maki qutux squ hminas spyang nqu zyuwaw na kinraral (baha hmswa gi nyux maki squ ki’an rhyal nqu 博爾庫-恩內迪-提貝斯提區)baqun kbzinah mita squ zik na kungyan 2000 kawas.

ana ga maki squ tekska rhyal nqu Chad ga kinnian nqu pptyuwaw squ sslaq na ssquliq yuwaw nqu kilraral qani ga wal hminas squsazing sen kawas.rhyal naha qani aring squ swayal ga qutux nqu magi kinbaqan ki’an llsayan naha.skahu naha binnrwan mita squ uraw kinbalay qbaq nqu qeqaya ru pinqyuwan nqu yuwaw sraral ,maki squ kwara ka kinbaqan spyang minaring hya ga 薩奧文明.kungyan 9 tehuk squ 10 seci,squliq nqu 薩奧te qutux nqu ps’rux rhyal na Chad撒哈拉,spyang qruyux nqu kni’an mrhuw uzi—加涅姆qutux nqu mrhuw,babw nqu 16 seci , mhtu qu mstyan na mrhuw 巴吉米爾ki mrhuw瓦達伊,aring kya lga cyugal Kokka  qani ga ini hngaw ‘mubu mtciriq。taqu  mrhuw 加涅姆kitpucing gmluw suruw nqu psrhuw cintman kwara ka cipuqing  kbalay  hhinas ggwahan

te rhyal qmara squ 撒哈拉 qqhut ‘osa zyuwaw nqu  ggwahan nqu pila 。

iyat nanak qmol squ yatuy, kwara ka nyux ming squ qpzing qqhut rhyal qami ga iyat min shgci te rhyal nqu mkura kilux。

Kawas nqu 1883tehuk squ 1893kawas  te kskak ,kwara ka Kokka qani ga wayal

slaqux squliq na 蘇丹 拉比赫·祖拜爾。

mki squ zik kinglabang kinlhangan nqu Kokka na法, squliq ka minlahang squ 法te1900 kawas  lga pinsrxun la 「Kokka na Chad ki mlahang squ rhyal nqu hitay」(Territoire Militaire des Pays et Protectorats du Tchad)。

tehuk te1920 kawas,

Kokka na法國 wayal magal squ kinri nqu qqhut squ Kokka na Chad.

rax na kinlhangan nah qu Kokka na Chad qani ga ungat qu sinqtuxan naha maras ‘osa naha , msuqi qu kinlhagan yuwawa misuw. Squliq nqu Kokka na法國 spyang kita

naha squ Kokka na Chad hya ga spyang balay nqu rroq ptywaw naha ru rhyal nqu hhtgan na sbus, maki squ 1929 kawas,rhyal nqu Kokka na法國

taring pkrahu kbalay phtuw squ sbus. hminas ini kintehuk qu

Sexu kinlahang nqu Kokka na Chad ,siki mwah stama squ spyang yaqih na qutux gluw nqu thoki hitay kahul squ Kokka na法國. mki squ zik na Kokka na Chad  hya ga nanak maki squ mkura kilux qasa qu blaq cikay qu kinlhangan , qinhtan Kokka na法maki squ mkura tltu ki ht'gan wagi ga nanak yaqu lalu nanak . kinlhangan nqu Sexu ga ini pyang kura mita squ gaga psbaq ru pira iyan qu ryax ungat qu hgciy pintywaw.maki squ babaw minsazing pintriqan lga, Kokka nqu 法 syun nya te suruw bslung qu  pgleng rahyal na Kokka Chad, taqu squliq nqu maki te pgleng rahyal qani ga maki qu kinri naha gmoyaw squ Kokka 法na Gikay Rayhyuw ru squliq Kokka Chad Gikay Gi’ing. trang nasa ga spyang krahu na linhuyal 政黨hya ga cinpuqing squ rhyal na mkura kilux Chad進步黨.


pklahang ptzyuwaw squ squli政治

gaga nqu Horip qani ga gmluw miq squ Kokka Chad

qutux nqu kinri krahu ka ppcyagun bbrwan nqu kki’an , Soto hya ga spyang krahu na pgleng squ Kokka Chad , maki qu kiri nya ppiyu ttman nqu 總理 ki kwara ka pptywaw yuwaw nqu tthoki, yan nqu hang kang , mrhuw nqu hitay , maki balay qu rngu nya pposa tthoki nqu rhyal na qqalang ki kungsi nqu Kokka ka mrhuw spyang mrhuw.trang maki qu hminas spyang krahu ru khlagan na yuwaw mhtuw ga , nyux  mpkayal Soto ki Gi’ing nqu Kokka  babaw na minpkayal lga baqun miq maha kinhlagan nqu merey. Soto naha ga mikahun squ ginoyaw nqu ssquilq, zmagal kawas mosa na sptyuwaw; maki squ 2005 kawas  wayal swalan giqas nqu gaga horip Chad

llaxan qu sinpngan na ryax ptywaw nqu Soto, swayal hya ga nway minqutux  lozi

‘mubuy  mtywaw qu Soto. spyang ppqutan nqu Soto德比hya ga wiway squliq nqu

札加瓦, linhuyan nqu qmhut  hmtuy  ki  kwra ka maki squ mkura kilux  rhyal ga

maki Rayhyu na Sexu.

mki squ Kokka nqu Chad cingay balay qu mquriq magal pila , slwan mita squ kwara Kokka maki squ 2005 kawas  nyux kmal maha skahun aha 清廉指數mita ga kwara ka babaw cibwanan spyang hminas balay baq maniq pila Kokka maga Chad qani

maki squ 2006 kawas lga wayal miyuw cukay la.


qinsugan pptywaw squ rhyal行政區劃

Kokka na Chad qani ga 22 qu krahu rhyal qinsugan nya,taqu kwara ubuw nqu qbaqan naha mtywaw qani ga maki squ 2003 kawas lga mtbuci qu kinri taring ginlgan pintywaw, wayal yugun ‘mbuy squ 14 nqu 省, qutux qutux rhyal ga maki qutux qu thoki ka ginnoywaw na  Soto . krahu nqu rhyal hya ga syan 50省, taqu省 qani ga syan squ 400 msyaw qu Ken Sexu. Kwara ka Ken Sexu  qani ga spkayal naha maha aki skahul su Song (communautés rurales)mwaha ‘myuw smyunaw,ana ga maki qu sinnakay nqu gaga horip ru ini naha tmsuqi na. wayl spkayal nqu gaga horip maha nway qhlun nqu Sexu  ssquliq maha klokah gmluw squ phgci mqyanux na qqalang ,

nanu yasa qu ,gaga nqu horip hya ga nyux nya pbkgun pkita squ kwara ka pptyuwaw qinsugan nqu rrhyal kwara qani ga mosa yaqu ssquliq qu mwah gmoyaw hhtgan nqu linhoyan pklahang, ana ga mucing soni naga nyux ini kta na qu ginnoyaw naha ka thoki  mmwah mtyuwaw squ qqlalng,taqu 2005 kawas aki nyux mwah gmoyaw uzi ga kya minpira ini swan .


gaga文化

Kokka nqu Chad qani ga cingay balay qu iniqtnaq na ssquliq ru kay naha uzi ,gaga naha ru qeqaya sraral ga cingay balay. nyux kinrrngu rmuruw pslang gaga ru cinring nqu qnxan naha qu Sexu nqu Kokka Chad , sgyah naha qu 博物館na Kokka Chad ki

Psmsun squ gaga zyuwaw nqu Chad. [48] qutux kawas ga maki 6 qu kwara ka hngawan na ssquliq,mki uzi qu hngawal iyt skahul squ sinpngan nqu Kokka naha yal nqu hngawan na kiristo kyokay 復活節, ryax nqu 伊斯蘭教 sun naha maha 肉孜節

、古爾邦節ki聖紀節等。[61]

maki squ Chad ga blaq naha na lubuw ga 「kinde」(一種豎琴)、「kakaki」

(qutux squ qinruyux naga 3tehuk squ 4 mi nqu 號角)ki「hu hu」(qutux squ yan kinkyasan na thbu galan naha pkrahu hngyang nqu lubuw)。qutux  qutux gluw na squliq ga ini ptnaq qu lubuw naha : squliq na 薩拉 hya ga lubuw nqu 笛子, 巴拉風(balafon,qutux nqu lubuw qhuniq)、豎琴ki kodjo tcingun ga maki qu hngyang nya;squliq na 加涅姆布qruyux kinnalay naha ruma lubuw twangan naha tcingun ga maki qu hngyang nya msqun mlubuw。

taqu linhuyan sinqunanlubuw nqu沙里爵士樂 maki squ 1964 kawas lga msqun la ,

taring maras squ misuw na lubuw ni Chad.tpucing ,ruma nqu hinhuyan ptlubuw kaki maha psqunaw ta qu misuw na lubuw ki  lubuw na sraral . ana ga squliq nqu Chad ga yaqix naha qu lubuw na misuw hya , maki squ 1995 kawas , nyux taring smoya lubuw nqu misuw qani la, taqu snoya naha qani lga kwara ka squliq na Chad ka spyang ppqwas qwas nyux  taring kbalay squ ppongan na qwas uzi lga .

ana ga mquliq kbalay nanak uzi ru ini kintehuk qu qnhut na kinhangan horip ga nyux sqhut ‘osa mstazin zyuwaw nqu lubuw na Chad.

spyang nniqun na Chad hya ga trkis, mutux naha skbalay squ wayay ru simaw naha buq na tthoyuw ru niqun naha , myang qani na nniqun ga sun na mkura tltu ga 「alysh」ma ;maki squ mkura kilux hya hga sun naha maha 「biya」.

lamu na qulih uzi ga qutux nqu nyux soyan i cin Kokka qani, mutux naha skbaly squ

「salanga」(kinyayan naha ru shluqan naha klyan naha 鮭脂鯉ini ga 猛魚)

ru 「banda」(krahu na sinhluqan na qulih)。「Carcaje」qutux nqu kinbalay na

abaw木槿ru m’sbing nqu nnbun. maki squ rhyal mkura kilux hya ga soyan naha qu nnbun qwaw hya, nnbun nqu ssquliq hya ga「billi-billi」(kinbalay na trakis mtalah)ki「coshate」(kinbalay na  trakis plquwi)biru kinbalay trkis

mtnaq ki binah na Kokka非洲 , kinqbaqan na Chad ga wayal syagun cikay nqu gwahan na pila, ru yuwaw na pklahang ptzyuwaw squ squli .Kokka nqu Chad ga cingay qu baq miru squ bbiru kktan ssquliq bnrwan naha squ pinposa naha mqinyatan maki squ tetanux na Kokka , spyang nqu kkyalan naha ga msqutux squ inpxan nqu pklahang ptzyuwaw squ squli ki bnran nqu zyuwaw na binkesan. taring squ 1962 kawas, 20 hi pbiru squ bbiru kktan naha kya wayal squ 60 qu biru bnrwan naha .

maki cikay qu lalu na pbir hya ga 約瑟夫·卜拉欣·賽義德(Joseph Brahim Seïd)、

巴巴·穆斯塔法(Baba Moustapha)、安托萬·班基(Antoine Bangui)和庫爾西·拉姆科(Koulsy Lamko)。


2003 kawas,maki squ Chad qani ga qutux balay qu smpung squ bnrwan naha biru 艾哈邁德·塔博耶(Ahmat Taboye)phtuw biru  Chad ginnoyaw biru(Anthologie de la littérature tchadienne)skahul kwara Kokka ki zik na mrkyas musa muyaw kmal bnran nqu Chad。


zyuwaw nqu ega maki squ Chad qani ga wayal ptqihun nqu ciriqan naha nanak

mzyuwaw naha uzi qu ini kintehuk na  ega kang(maki squ Kokka na Chad ga qutux bnbalay qu ega kang naha )

tequtux nqu ega na Chad ga maki squ 1999 kawas kahun squ穆罕默德·薩利赫·哈龍(Mahamat Saleh Haroun)kinbalay nya 《Bye Bye Africa》,

kinbalay nqu 穆罕默德 qu ega 《Daratt》wayal tlu te min 63 nqu 威尼斯 kwra ka Kokka na sins pspng squ ega hminas spyang na qnabu ,babaw nya maki squ 2010 kawas  te qutux mzyup squ 坎城pkita squ kinblayan naha squ ega《hnwaw naqu mlikuy》(《A Screaming Man》)wayal magal lozi squ qnabu nqu sinsi ka linhoyan pspng.

伊薩·塞爾日·克洛(Issa Serge Coelo)minpcbaq squ binah sazing na ega

《Daressalam》ki《Tartina City》 maki squ Kokka na  Chad ga blaq naha kmlkah squ mari  [82]kmlkah mari ki ziyuw nqu macang ga nyux naha blaq balay。


spzyang qalang na Kokka’ (首都)

spzyang naha’ krahu’ qalang hya’ ga N'Djamena.

snyan kinramat inlungan na Kokka’ (國家紀念日)

snyan kinramat inlungan na Kokka’ hya’ ga 11 na tay mspat byacing na qutux kawas.

mrhuw Kokka’ (國家元首)

mrhuw Kokka’ ta’ misuw hya’ ga Idriss Déby, aring ryax 2 squ byacing tay 12 sa kawas 1990 lga, musa’ spazyang balay ms’rux kya la.

cinkhulan sa knita’ sa brbiru’

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