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New Jersey

State of the United States of America

New Jersey is one of the 50 states of the United States of America. It is in the northeastern section of the country along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. It is a geographically small state, shaped like a letter [S], and bordered on the west by Pennsylvania and Delaware across the Delaware River, on the north by New York, on the northeast by the Hudson River and New York City, on the east and southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the southwest by Delaware Bay.

New Jersey
State of New Jersey
Flag of New Jersey
The Garden State[1]
Liberty and prosperity
Map of the United States with New Jersey highlighted
Map of the United States with New Jersey highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodProvince of New Jersey
Admitted to the UnionDecember 18, 1787 (3rd)
Largest cityNewark
Largest metro and urban areasGreater New York
 • GovernorPhil Murphy (D)
 • Lieutenant GovernorSheila Oliver (D)
LegislatureNew Jersey Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseGeneral Assembly
U.S. senatorsBob Menendez (D)
Cory Booker (D)
U.S. House delegation10 Democrats
2 Republicans (list)
 • Total8,722.58 sq mi (22,591.38 km2)
 • Land7,354.22 sq mi (19,047.34 km2)
 • Water1,368.36 sq mi (3,544.04 km2)  15.7%
Area rank47th
 • Length170 mi (273 km)
 • Width70 mi (112 km)
250 ft (80 m)
Highest elevation1,803 ft (549.6 m)
Lowest elevation
(Atlantic Ocean[2])
0 ft (0 m)
 • Total8,882,190
 • Rank11th
 • Density1,210.10/sq mi (467/km2)
 • Density rank1st
 • Median household income
 • Income rank
Demonym(s)New Jerseyan (official),[4] New Jerseyite[5][6]
 • Official languageNone
 • Spoken language
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
USPS abbreviation
ISO 3166 codeUS-NJ
Traditional abbreviationN.J.
Latitude38°56′ N to 41°21′ N
Longitude73°54′ W to 75°34′ W
New Jersey state symbols
Flag of New Jersey.svg
Seal of New Jersey.svg
Living insignia
BirdEastern goldfinch[8]
FishBrook trout[9]
FlowerViola sororia
InsectWestern honey bee
TreeQuercus rubra (northern red oak),[10] dogwood (memorial tree)
Inanimate insignia
ColorsBuff and blue
Folk danceSquare dance
FoodBlueberry (state fruit)
FossilHadrosaurus foulkii
State route marker
New Jersey state route marker
State quarter
New Jersey quarter dollar coin
Released in 1999
Lists of United States state symbols

The capital of New Jersey is Trenton and the largest city is Newark, though New Jersey is better known for bordering the large cities of New York City and Philadelphia. The state nickname is "The Garden State". The current governor is Phil Murphy.[12]

New Jersey is the fourth smallest state, but has the eleventh highest number of people. It therefore has the highest population density (number of people for the amount of land) in the United States. New Jersey is also well known for its beaches, industries, swamps, and pine forests.

The climate is hot and humid summers and cold winters, with about 47 in (1,200 mm) of precipitation every year. The average temperature in the summer is between 82 °F (28 °C) and 87 °F (31 °C), and in winter around 16 °F (-9 °C) to 34 °F (1 °C).[13]


Before Europeans came, the land that is now New Jersey was inhabited by the Lenape (also known as Delaware Indians by the English), who were nomads, hunters, and farmers. The Dutch came to the northern area of the state in the 1630s, after Henry Hudson explored the area, thought it was a nice place, and claimed it for the Dutch. Towns quickly sprang up, occupied by the Dutch, Swedes, and Finns. People rushed in. The first towns, such as Bergen (now Jersey City), Trenton (the capitol), and Burlington developed. Many others started themselves upon the west bank of the Hudson. New Jersey was part of the area known at this time as New Netherland.

In 1664, the English took New Netherland from the Dutch and added it to their colonies. This part was renamed New Jersey after an island in the English Channel known as Jersey.

New Jersey took part in the American Revolutionary War, and was a scene of battles. On Christmas in 1776, George Washington's army entered New Jersey to attack British soldiers at Trenton and Princeton. The American army won, in two small but famous battles that were important in boosting American morale.

Later, the rebels drove the British residents out of Princeton and for a time established a national capital there. New Jersey was the third state to join the USA and the first to approve the Bill of Rights.


New Jersey has 21 counties:

FIPS CodeCounty Seat [14]Created [14]Formed from [15]Named for [16]Population (2005) [14]Area [14]Map
Atlantic County001Mays Landing1837Gloucester CountyThe Atlantic Ocean, which forms the county's eastern border271,015671 sq mi
(1,738 km2)
Bergen County003Hackensack1675One of four original counties created in East JerseyThe town of Bergen op Zoom, Holland or Bergen, Norway904,037247 sq mi
(640 km2)
Burlington County005Mount Holly Township1681One of two original counties created in West JerseyThe old name for the ancient market town a mile from shore in Bridlington, England450,743819 sq mi
(2,121 km2)
Camden County007Camden1844Gloucester CountyCharles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden (1714–1794), an English supporter of the colonial cause during the American Revolution[17]517,001228 sq mi
(591 km2)
Cape May County009Cape May Court House1685Burlington CountyThe 17th-century Dutch explorer Cornelius Jacobsen Mey (?–16??), who explored and surveyed the Delaware Bay to the south of the county99,286365 sq mi
(945 km2)
Cumberland County011Bridgeton1748Salem CountyPrince William, Duke of Cumberland (1721–1765), second son of George II of England and military victor at the Battle of Culloden in 1746154,823677 sq mi
(1,753 km2)
Essex County013Newark1675One of four original counties created in East JerseyThe county of Essex in England786,147130 sq mi
(337 km2)
Gloucester County015Woodbury1686Burlington CountyThe city of Gloucester, England276,910337 sq mi
(873 km2)
Hudson County017Jersey City1840Bergen CountyThe English explorer Henry Hudson (1570–1611), who explored portions of New Jersey's coastline601,14662 sq mi
(161 km2)
Hunterdon County019Flemington1714Burlington CountyRobert Hunter (1664–1734), the Colonial Governor of New Jersey from 1710 to 1720130,404438 sq mi
(1,134 km2)
Mercer County021Trenton1838Burlington County, Hunterdon County, Middlesex County, and Somerset CountyThe Continental Army General Hugh Mercer (1726–1777), who died at the Battle of Princeton[18]367,605229 sq mi
(593 km2)
Middlesex County023New Brunswick1675One of four original counties created in East JerseyThe former county of Middlesex in England789,516323 sq mi
(837 km2)
Monmouth County025Freehold Borough1675One of four original counties created in East JerseyThe Rhode Island Monmouth Society or the historic county of Monmouthshire in Wales.635,285665 sq mi
(1,722 km2)
Morris County027Morristown1739Hunterdon CountyColonel Lewis Morris (1671–1746), colonial governor of New Jersey at the time of the county's formation.[19][20]493,160481 sq mi
(1,246 km2)
Ocean County029Toms River1850Monmouth CountyThe Atlantic Ocean, which forms the eastern border of New Jersey562,335916 sq mi
(2,372 km2)
Passaic County031Paterson1837Bergen County and Essex County"Pasaeck", a Lenape word meaning "valley"499,060197 sq mi
(510 km2)
Salem County033Salem1681One of two original counties created in West JerseyA Hebrew word meaning "peace"66,595373 sq mi
(966 km2)
Somerset County035Somerville1688Middlesex CountyThe county of Somerset in England319,900305 sq mi
(790 km2)
Sussex County037Newton1753Morris CountyThe county of Sussex in England153,384536 sq mi
(1,388 km2)
Union County039Elizabeth1857Essex CountyThe union of the United States threatened by dispute between North and South over slavery531,088105 sq mi
(272 km2)
Warren County041Belvidere1824Sussex CountyThe American Revolutionary War General Joseph Warren (1741–1775), killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill110,376363 sq mi
(940 km2)


  1. The Garden State and Other New Jersey State Nicknames Archived September 2, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Robert Lupp, New Jersey Reference Services, New Jersey State Library, October 12, 1994.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  3. Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  4. "GPO Style Manual 2008" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 21, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  5. "New Jersey—Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on May 31, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  6. "Definition of New Jerseyite". Archived from the original on June 22, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
  7. "Language spoken at home by ability to speak English for the population 5 years and over—2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
  8. "New Jersey State Bird". The Official Web Site for The State of New Jersey. The State of New Jersey. Archived from the original on March 25, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
  9. "The New Jersey State Fish". The Official Web Site for The State of New Jersey. The State of New Jersey. Archived from the original on August 9, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
  10. "The New Jersey State Trees". The Official Web Site for The State of New Jersey. The State of New Jersey. Archived from the original on March 10, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
  11. "New Jersey State Soil—Downer". Natural Resources Conservation Service. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved August 17, 2014.
  12. DeFalco, Beth. "NJ gov off to a strong start; some say too strong". Yahoo. Archived from the original on March 29, 2010. Retrieved March 24, 2010.
  13. Aladin. "New Jersey, USA - Climate & Monthly weather forecast". Weather U.S. Retrieved June 23, 2022.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 "NACo - Find a county". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on January 12, 2008. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
  15. "New Jersey Formation Maps". Genealogy, Inc. Archived from the original on January 20, 2008. Retrieved January 25, 2008.
  16. "The Origin of New Jersey Place Names" (PDF). New Jersey State Library Commission. Federal Writers' Program. 1938. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 5, 2004. Retrieved April 25, 2008.
  17. Greenberg, Gail. A Brief History of Camden County, Camden County, New Jersey. Accessed June 26, 2007.
  18. Mercer County History, State of New Jersey. Accessed June 26, 2007.
  19. The Land Past and Present, Retrieved on March 22, 2007.
  20. How did our county get its name?, Morris County Library website (accessed February 13, 2008)

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