Scotland: Kintra in northren Europe, pairt o the Unitit Kinrick

Scotland (Inglis: Scotland, Scots Gaelic: Alba  ( listen)) is a kintra in north wastren Europe, an is wan o the fower kintras that maks the Unitit Kinrick.

    For mair airticles adae wi fowk, steids an things in Scotland tak a keek at category:Scotland.

It taks up the northren thurd o the Great Britain. South o Scotland is Ingland, an is bund bi the German Ocean til the east an the Atlantic Ocean til the north an wast.


Predominantly "Flouer o Scotland"
Location o  Scotland  (dark green) – on the European continent  (green & dark grey) – in the Unitit Kinrick  (green)
Location o  Scotland  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the Unitit Kinrick  (green)

Lairgest ceetyGlesga
55°51′N 4°16′W / 55.850°N 4.267°W / 55.850; -4.267
Offeecial leids
  • 53.8% Christian
  • 2.6% Ither
  • 46.6% No releegion/nae statit
GovrenmentDevolved pairlamentary legislatur within constitutional
• Monarch
Pairlament o the Unitit Kinrick
Rishi Sunak
• Secretar o State
Alister Jack
• Hoose o Commons
59 MPs (o 650)
LegislaturScots Pairlament
• Established
9t yearhunder (tradeetionally 843)
1 Mey 1707
19 November 1998
• Land
77,933 km2 (30,090 sq mi)
• 2019 estimate
Increase 5,463,300
• 2011 census
• Density
67.5/km2 (174.8/sq mi)
HDI (2017)0.901
verra heich
CurrencyPoond sterling (GBP)
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drivin sidecaur
Cawin code+44
ISO 3166 codeGB-SCT
  1. Eften shawn abbreviatit as "In Defens".
  2. A nummer o sangs are uised unofficially as Scots anthems, maist notably Scotland the Brave, Flouer o Scotland, an Scots Wha Hae. Auld Lang Syne an the The Thistle o' Scotland haw bin proponed an aw.
  3. Baith Scots an Scots Gaelic are offeecially recognised as regional leids unner the European Chairter for Regional or Minority Leids. Unner the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005, Bòrd na Gàidhlig is a quango appointed by the Scots Govrenment in 2003, tasked wi securin Gaelic as an offeecial leid o Scotland. Breetish Sign Leid is offeecially recognised unner the British Sign Language (Scotland) Act 2015.
  4. The heid o state o the Unitit Kinrick is the monarch (currently King Charles III, syne 2022). Scotland haes leemitit sel-govrenment within the UK as well as representation in the UK Pairlament. It wis a UK electoral region for the European Pairlament. Certain executive an legislative pouers hae been devolved tae, respectively, the Scots Govrenment an the Scots Pairlament.

Scotland wis ance a free kinrick, but syne gaed intil a union wi England in 1603, whan Jeams VI o Scotland becam Jeams I o England efter the deith o Elspeth I. This union wis makkit formal on 1 Mey 1707 bi the Treaty o Union. The Scots Pairlament wis gotten rid o on 26 Mairch. The union southert baith kinricks, makkin the Kinrick o Great Breetain, wi a new single Pairlament haudden in Wastmeenster, Lunnon, but some pairts o Scotland's institutions, merkit the laund's naitional kirk an scuilin an legal systems, wis hauden apairt. In 1801, Scotland becam ane o the three launds o the Unitit Kinrick, alang wi England an Ireland (nou juist Northren Ireland). Wales is nou seen for uisual as anither laund, awtho it wis juist a principality o the kinrick o England in 1707.

In 1997, the Scots fowk voted tae hae a new pairlament, estaiblisht by the UK government in the Scotland Act 1998. The nou reconvened Scots Pairlament haes been gien the pouer tae govern the laund on maist Scots maiters, but haesna ower muckle pouer wi taxes, awtho it dis hae the pouer tae chynge the UK income tax rate bi 3p in the pund.

Scotland's size is maistly that estaiblisht by the 1237 Treaty o York atween Scotland an England an the 1266 Treaty o Perth atween Scotland an Norawa. Exceptions is the Isle o Mann, that is nou a croun dependency ootwi the Unitit Kinrick, Orkney an Shetland, that is nou Scots raither nor Dens, an Berwick, that wis defined as subject til the laws o England by the 1746 Wales an Berwick Act.

The patron saunt o Scotland is Saunt Andra, an St Andra's Day is on 30 November but it haesna been celebrate muckle syne the Reformation.

The wird Scot wis taen frae the Laitin an its uiss micht weel date fae aboot the first hauf o the 10t centurie, whan it first kythed in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle an harkent til the Laund o the Gaels, analogous til the Laitin Scotia. The ither name is "Caledonie", that's gien tae some pairts o the New Warld an colonies, like New Caledon. Scots kings adoptit the teetle Basileus/Rex Scottorum (= Hie King/King o the Gaels, basileus meanin sovereign in the Greek, an rex meanin king in the Laitin) an Rex Scotiae (King o Gael-Land) sometime in the 11t century, likely swee'd by the style Imperator Scottorum kent tae hae been uised bi Brian Bóruma in Ireland in 1005. In modren times the wird "Scot" is uised equaly for aw indwallers nae maiter wha thair forebeirs wis. This is acause the kintra haess haed a ceevic raither nor a single kin orientation for maist o the last thoosand year.


Scotland: History, Ilands, See forby
The foonders o Scotland o late mediaeval legend, Scota wi Goídel Glas, on thair vaige frae Egyp, as depicted in a 15t century manuscript o the Scotichronicon o Walter Bower.

Early history

Repeated glaciations, that kivered the hale laund-mass o modren Scotland, hae malafoustered ony traces that micht hae existit o bodies bidin thare afore the Mesolithic period. It is thocht that the first post-glacial groups o hunter-gaitherers wan til Scotland aboot 12,800 year syne, as the ice sheet retreated efter the last glaciation. Groups o sattlers begoud biggin the first kent permanent hooses on Scots syle aroond 9,500 year aby, an the first clachans around 6,000 year syne. The weel-presered clachan o Skara Brae on the Mainlaund o Orkney dates frae this period. Neolithic habitation, buirial an reetual steids is in parteecular common an weel-presered in the Northren Isles an Wastren Isles, whaur want o trees led tae maist structurs bein biggit wi local stane.

Roman influence

Scotland: History, Ilands, See forby
Skara Brae, a neolithic dounset, located in the Bay o Skaill, Orkney.
Scotland: History, Ilands, See forby
A replica o the Pechtish Hilton o Cadboll Stane.

The written protohistory o Scotland begoud wi the in comin o the Roman Empire in soothren an central Great Breetain, whan the Romans occupied whit is nou Ingland an Wales, administerin it as a province cried Britannia. Roman invasions an occupations o soothren Scotland war a series o brief interludes. In 83–4 AD the general Gnaeus Julius Agricola defeated the Caledonians at the battle o Mons Graupius, an Roman forts war briefly set alang the Gask Ridge naur tae the Hieland line (nane are kent tae hae been constructed ayont that line). Three year efter the battle the Roman airmies haed resiled tae the Soothren Uplands. Thay pit up Hadrian's Waw for tae haud in the tribes on baith sides o the waw, an the Limes Britannicus becam the northren laundmairch o the empire, awtho the airmy hauden on tae the Antonine Waw in the Central Lawlands for twa short periods—the hindmaist o thaim wis durin the time o Emperor Septimius Severus frae 208 till 210. The extent o Roman military occupation o ony significant pairt o Scotland wis limited tae a total o aboot 40 year, awtho thair influence on the soothren section o the kintra occupeed by Brythonic tribes sic as the Votadini an Damnonii wad still hae been considerable.

Medieval period

Modern history

Scotland: History, Ilands, See forby
David Morier's pentin on the "Battle o Culloden".

In 1603, James VI, King o Scots inherited the throne o the Kinrick o Ingland, an becam King James I o Ingland, an left Edinburgh for Lunnon. Apairt frae a short period unner the Protectorate, Scotland steyed a sinder state, but there wis guid puckle conflict atween the croun an the Covenanters ower the form o kirk government. Efter the Glorious Revolution, the abolition o episcopacy an the dingin doun o the Roman Catholic James VII by William an Mary, Scotland briefly shored tae wale a different Protestant monarch frae Ingland. In 1707, the Scots Pairlament an the Pairlament o Ingland enacted the twin Acts o Union that led tae Scotland's formal incorporation intae the Kinrick o Great Breetain. The deponed Jacobite Stuart claimants haed steyed popular in the Hielands an nor'east, in parteecular amangst non-Presbyterians. Houaniver, twa major Jacobite uprisings launched in 1715 an 1745 failt tae remuive the Hoose o Hanover frae the British throne. The threit o the Jacobite muivement tae the Unitit Kinrick an its monarchs effective endit at the Battle o Culloden, Great Breetain's last pitched battle. This defeat paved the wey for lairge-scale remuivals o the indwallers o the Hielands an Islands, kent as the Hieland Clearances.

The Scots Enlightenment an the Industrial Revolution makkit Scotland intae an intellectual, commercial an industrial pouerhoose. Efter Seicont Warld Weir, Scotland experienced an industrial decline that wis parteecular severe. Anerly in raicent decades haes the kintra enjoyed something o a cultural an economic renaissance. Economic factors that hae contribute tae this recovery include a resurgent financial services industry, electronics manufacturin, (see Silicon Glen), an the German Ocean ile an gas industry.

Follaein a referendum on devolution proposals in 1997, the Scotland Act 1998 wis passed by the Unitit Kinrick Pairlament for tae estaiblish a devolved Scots Pairlament.


Scotland haes mair nor 790 ilands, that ar sindert intil fower groups: Shetland, Orkney, an the Hebrides, that ar sub-dividit intil the Inner Hebrides an Ooter Hebrides, the ail o Mull isnae ti be forgotten.


See forby

Scotland: History, Ilands, See forby
Rake fer Scotland i the
Scots Wiktionar, the free Scots dictionar.

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History Scotland

Ilands Scotland

See forby Scotland



Atlantic Ocean




Inglis leid


North Sea

Scots Gaelic leid

Unitit Kinrick

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