Har saal Nobel Prizes dher vibhag me dewa jaawe hae. Ii vibhag hae Literature, Science aur Peace. Nobel Prize ke Alfred Nobel ke baad naam dewa gais hae. Iske dunia me sab se barraa prize maana jaawe hae.

Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences bhi Alfred Nobel ke yaad me dewa jjawe hae, aur kabhi kabhi iske Nobel Prize in Economics bola jaawe hae, lekin ii Nobel ke will ke hissa nai hae. Iske 1969 me Bank of Sweden suruu karis rahaa. Ii prize ke aur Nobel Prize ke ssathe dewa jaawe hae.

Prize categories and winners

Physics me nobel prize jiite waala[1] jiske Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences decide kare hae

1901 Wilhelm Conrad RöntgenGermany"uske ek rakam ke ray ke pawe ke khatir jiske naam uske naam dewa gais hae."[2]
1902 Hendrik LorentzNetherlands" uske ii khoj ke khatir ki radiation ke uppar magnetism ke kon asar rahe hae."[3]
 Pieter ZeemanNetherlands
1903 Antoine Henri BecquerelFrance"uske spontaneous radioactivity ke baare me paawe ke baad"[4]
Pierre CurieFrance" uu logan ke Professor Henri Becquerel se pawa gais radiation phenomena ke baare me khoj "[4]
 Marie CuriePoland / France
1904 John William StruttUnited Kingdom"uske khaas gas ke uppar khoj aur uske argon ke paawe ke khatir"[5]
1905 Philipp Eduard Anton von LenardGermany"uske cathode ray ke uppar kaam ke khaatir"[6]
1906 Joseph John ThomsonUnited Kingdom" uske "conduction of electricity by gases" ke uppar ke khoj ke khatir[7]
1907 Albert Abraham MichelsonUnited States"uske optical precision instruments aur spectroscopic and metrological ke uppar ke khoj ke khatir"[8]
1908 Gabriel LippmannFrance"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[9]
1909 Guglielmo MarconiItaly"[for] their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"[10]
 Karl Ferdinand BraunGermany
1910 Johannes Diderik van der WaalsNetherlands"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"[11]
1911 Wilhelm WienGermany"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"[12]
1912 Nils Gustaf DalénSweden"for his invention of automatic valves designed to be used in combination with gas accumulators in lighthouses and buoys"[13]
1913 Heike Kamerlingh-OnnesNetherlands"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"[14]
1914 Max von LaueGermany"For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"[15], an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy.
1915William Henry BraggUnited Kingdom"For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"[16], an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography
 William Lawrence BraggUnited Kingdom
1916Not awarded
1917 Charles Glover BarklaUnited Kingdom"For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"[17], another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy
1918 Max PlanckGermany"[for] the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"[18]
1919 Johannes StarkGermany"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"[19]
1920 Charles Édouard GuillaumeSwitzerland"[for] the service he has rendered to precision measurements in physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel-steel alloys"[20]
1921 Albert EinsteinGermany"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"[21]
1922 Niels BohrDenmark"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"[22]
1923 Robert Andrews MillikanUnited States"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"[23]
1924file:Manne Siegbahn.jpgManne SiegbahnSweden"for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"[24]
1925 James FranckGermany"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"[25]
file:Gustav Ludwig Hertz.jpgGustav HertzGermany
1926Jean Baptiste PerrinFrance"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"[26]
1927 Arthur Holly ComptonUnited States"for his discovery of the effect named after him"[27]
 Charles Thomson Rees WilsonUnited Kingdom"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"[27]
1928 Owen Willans RichardsonUnited Kingdom"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"[28]
1929 Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de BroglieFrance"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"[29]
1930file:CVRaman.jpgChandrasekhara Venkata RamanIndia"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"[30]
1931Not awarded
1932 Werner HeisenbergGermany"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"[31]
1933Erwin SchrödingerAustria"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"[32]
 Paul DiracUnited Kingdom
1934Not awarded
1935file:Chadwick.jpgJames ChadwickUnited Kingdom"for the discovery of the neutron"[33]
1936 Victor Francis HessAustria"for his discovery of cosmic radiation"[34]
 Carl David AndersonUnited States"for his discovery of the positron"[34]
1937 Clinton Joseph DavissonUnited States"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"[35]
 George Paget ThomsonUnited Kingdom
1938 Enrico FermiItaly"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"[36]
1939 Ernest LawrenceUnited States"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"[37]
1940Not awarded
1941Not awarded
1942Not awarded
1943file:OttoStern.jpgOtto SternUnited States"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"[38]
1944 Isidor Isaac RabiUnited States"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"[39]
1945 Wolfgang PauliAustria"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"[40]
1946file:Percy Williams Bridgman.jpgPercy Williams BridgmanUnited States"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics"[41]
1947 Edward Victor AppletonUnited Kingdom"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"[42]
1948 Patrick Maynard Stuart BlackettUnited Kingdom"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"[43]
1949Hideki YukawaJapan"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"[44]
1950Cecil Frank PowellUnited Kingdom"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"[45]
1951John Douglas CockcroftUnited Kingdom"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"[46]
 Ernest Thomas Sinton WaltonIreland
1952 Felix BlochUnited States"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[47]
 Edward Mills PurcellUnited States
1953 Frits ZernikeNetherlands"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"[48]
1954 Max BornUnited Kingdom"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[49]
 Walther BotheWest Germany"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"[49]
1955 Willis Eugene LambUnited States"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"[50]
 Polykarp KuschUnited States"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"[50]
1956 John BardeenUnited States"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"[51]
 Walter Houser BrattainUnited States
 William Bradford ShockleyUnited States
1957Tsung-Dao LeeRepublic of China"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"[52]
 Chen Ning YangRepublic of China
1958 Pavel Alekseyevich CherenkovSoviet Union"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[53]
 Il'ya FrankSoviet Union
Igor Yevgenyevich TammSoviet Union
1959 Owen ChamberlainUnited States"for their discovery of the antiproton"[54]
 Emilio Gino SegrèItaly
1960 Donald Arthur GlaserUnited States"for the invention of the bubble chamber"[55]
1961 Robert HofstadterUnited States"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"[56]
 Rudolf Ludwig MössbauerWest Germany"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"[56]
1962Lev Davidovich LandauSoviet Union"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"[57]
1963 Eugene Paul WignerUnited States"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"[58]
file:Maria Goeppert-Mayer.gifMaria Goeppert-MayerUnited States"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"[58]
 J. Hans D. JensenWest Germany
1964Nicolay Gennadiyevich BasovSoviet Union"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"[59]
 Aleksandr ProkhorovSoviet Union
Charles Hard TownesUnited States
1965 Richard Phillips FeynmanUnited States"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"[60]
 Julian SchwingerUnited States
 Sin-Itiro TomonagaJapan
1966 Alfred KastlerFrance"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"[61]
1967 Hans Albrecht BetheUnited States"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"[62]
1968 Luis Walter AlvarezUnited States"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"[63]
1969 Murray Gell-MannUnited States"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"[64]
1970 Hannes Olof Gösta AlfvénSweden"for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"[65]
Louis NéelFrance"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"[65]
1971Dennis GaborUnited Kingdom"for his invention and development of the holographic method"[66]
1972 John BardeenUnited States"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"[67]
Leon Neil CooperUnited States
file:Schrieffer.jpgJohn Robert SchriefferUnited States
1973Leo EsakiJapan"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"[68]
 Ivar GiaeverUnited States
file:Brian David Josephson.jpgBrian David JosephsonUnited Kingdom"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"[68]
1974Martin RyleUnited Kingdom"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"[69]
Antony HewishUnited Kingdom
1975Aage BohrDenmark"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"[70]
 Ben Roy MottelsonDenmark
Leo James RainwaterUnited States
1976 Burton RichterUnited States"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"[71]
Samuel Chao Chung TingUnited States
1977 Philip Warren AndersonUnited States"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"[72]
file:Sir Nevill Francis Mott.jpgNevill Francis MottUnited Kingdom
John Hasbrouck Van VleckUnited States
1978 Pyotr Leonidovich KapitsaSoviet Union"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"[73]
 Arno Allan PenziasUnited States"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"[73]
 Robert Woodrow WilsonUnited States
1979 Sheldon Lee GlashowUnited States"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"[74]
file:Abdus salam.gifAbdus SalamPakistan
 Steven WeinbergUnited States
1980 James Watson CroninUnited States"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"[75]
Val Logsdon FitchUnited States
1981 Nicolaas BloembergenUnited States"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"[76]
 Arthur Leonard SchawlowUnited States
Kai Manne Börje SiegbahnSweden"for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"[76]
1982Kenneth G. WilsonUnited States"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"[77]
1983Subrahmanyan ChandrasekharIndia, United States"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"[78]
William Alfred FowlerUnited States"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"[78]
1984 Carlo RubbiaItaly"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"[79]
Simon van der MeerNetherlands
1985 Klaus von KlitzingWest Germany"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"[80]
1986Ernst RuskaWest Germany"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"[81]
 Gerd BinnigWest Germany"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"[81]
 Heinrich RohrerSwitzerland
1987 Johannes Georg BednorzWest Germany"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"[82]
 Karl Alexander MüllerSwitzerland
1988 Leon Max LedermanUnited States"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"[83]
Melvin SchwartzUnited States
 Jack SteinbergerUnited States
1989Norman Foster RamseyUnited States"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"[84]
Hans Georg DehmeltUnited States"for the development of the ion trap technique"[84]
Wolfgang PaulWest Germany
1990Jerome I. FriedmanUnited States"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"[85]
 Henry Way KendallUnited States
Richard E. TaylorCanada
1991 Pierre-Gilles de GennesFrance"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"[86]
1992 Georges CharpakFrance"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"[87]
1993Russell Alan HulseUnited States"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"[88]
 Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.United States
1994 Bertram BrockhouseCanada"for the development of neutron spectroscopy" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"[89]
Clifford Glenwood ShullUnited States"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"[89]
1995 Martin Lewis PerlUnited States"for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[90]
 Frederick ReinesUnited States"for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[90]
1996David Morris LeeUnited States"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"[91]
 Douglas D. OsheroffUnited States
 Robert Coleman RichardsonUnited States
1997 Steven ChuUnited States"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light."[92]
 Claude Cohen-TannoudjiFrance
 William Daniel PhillipsUnited States
1998 Robert B. LaughlinUnited States"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"[93]
 Horst Ludwig StörmerGermany
Daniel Chee TsuiUnited States
1999 Gerardus 't HooftNetherlands"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"[94]
 Martinus J. G. VeltmanNetherlands
2000 Zhores Ivanovich AlferovRussia"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"[95]
Herbert KroemerGermany
Jack St. Clair KilbyUnited States"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"[95]
2001Eric Allin CornellUnited States"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"[96]
Carl Edwin WiemanUnited States
 Wolfgang KetterleGermany
2002Raymond Davis, Jr.United States"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"[97]
Masatoshi KoshibaJapan
 Riccardo GiacconiUnited States"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"[97]
2003 Alexei Alexeyevich AbrikosovRussia
United States
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"[98]
 Vitaly Lazarevich GinzburgRussia
Anthony James LeggettUnited Kingdom
United States
2004 David J. GrossUnited States"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"[99]
H. David PolitzerUnited States
 Frank WilczekUnited States
2005 Roy J. GlauberUnited States"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"[100]
John L. HallUnited States"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"[100]
 Theodor W. HänschGermany
2006 John C. MatherUnited States"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"[101]
 George F. SmootUnited States
2007 Albert FertFrance"for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance"[102]
 Peter GrünbergGermany
2008 Makoto KobayashiJapan"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"[103]
 Toshihide MaskawaJapan
 Yoichiro NambuUnited States"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"[103]
2009 Charles K. KaoHong Kong
United Kingdom
United States
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"[104]
 Willard S. BoyleCanada
United States
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor"[104]
 George E. SmithUnited States
2010 Andre GeimRussia
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"[105]
 Konstantin NovoselovRussia
United Kingdom

Chemistry me Nobel prize jiite waala log(decided by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences)

1901 Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoffthe Netherlands"[for his] discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"[106]
1902Hermann Emil FischerGermany"[for] his work on sugar and purine syntheses"[107]
1903Svante August ArrheniusSweden"[for] his electrolytic theory of dissociation"[108]
1904 Sir William RamsayUnited Kingdom"[for his] discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"[109]
1905 Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von BaeyerGermany"[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"[110]
1906Henri MoissanFrance"[for his] investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him"[111]
1907 Eduard BuchnerGermany"for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"[112]
1908 Ernest RutherfordUnited Kingdom
New Zealand
"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"[113]
1909 Wilhelm OstwaldGermany"[for] his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"[114]
1910Otto WallachGermany"[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"[115]
1911 Marie Curie, née SklodowskaPoland"[for] the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"[116]
1912Victor GrignardFrance"for the discovery of the [...] Grignard reagent"[117]
Paul SabatierFrance"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals"[117]
1913Alfred WernerSwitzerland"[for] his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules [...] especially in inorganic chemistry"[118]
1914 Theodore William RichardsUnited States"[for] his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"[119]
1915 Richard Martin WillstätterGermany"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"[120]
1916Not awarded
1917Not awarded
1918 Fritz HaberGermany"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[121]
1919Not awarded
1920 Walther Hermann NernstGermany"[for] his work in thermochemistry"[122]
1921Frederick SoddyUnited Kingdom"for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"[123]
1922Francis William AstonUnited Kingdom"for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"[124]
1923 Fritz PreglAustria"for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"[125]
1924Not awarded
1925Richard Adolf ZsigmondyGermany"for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used"[126]
1926The (Theodor) SvedbergSweden"for his work on disperse systems"[127]
1927Heinrich Otto WielandGermany"for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"[128]
1928Adolf Otto Reinhold WindausGermany"[for] his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"[129]
1929Arthur HardenUnited Kingdom"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"[130]
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-ChelpinGermany
1930Hans FischerGermany"for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"[131]
1931Carl BoschGermany"[for] their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"[132]
Friedrich BergiusGermany
1932 Irving LangmuirUnited States"for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"[133]
1933Not awarded
1934 Harold Clayton UreyUnited States"for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"[134]
1935Frédéric JoliotFrance"[for] their synthesis of new radioactive elements"[135]
Irene Joliot-CurieFrance
1936 Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debyethe Netherlands"[for his work on] molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"[136]
1937Walter Norman HaworthUnited Kingdom"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"[137]
Paul KarrerSwitzerland"for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"
1938Richard KuhnGermany"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"[138]
1939Adolf Friedrich Johann ButenandtGermany"for his work on sex hormones"[139]
Leopold RuzickaSwitzerland"for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"[139]
1940Not awarded
1941Not awarded
1942Not awarded
1943 George de HevesyHungary"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"[140]
1944Otto HahnGermany"for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"[141]
1945Artturi Ilmari VirtanenFinland"for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"[142]
1946James Batcheller SumnerUnited States"for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"[143]
John Howard NorthropUnited States"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"[143]
Wendell Meredith StanleyUnited States
1947Sir Robert RobinsonUnited Kingdom"for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"[144]
1948Arne Wilhelm Kaurin TiseliusSweden"for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"[145]
1949William Francis GiauqueUnited States"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"[146]
1950Otto Paul Hermann DielsFederal Republic of Germany"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"[147]
Kurt AlderFederal Republic of Germany
1951Edwin Mattison McMillanUnited States"for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements"[148]
Glenn Theodore SeaborgUnited States
1952Archer John Porter MartinUnited Kingdom"for their invention of partition chromatography"[149]
Richard Laurence Millington SyngeUnited Kingdom
1953Hermann StaudingerFederal Republic of Germany"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"[150]
1954 Linus Carl PaulingUnited States"for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"[151]
1955Vincent du VigneaudUnited States"for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"[152]
1956Sir Cyril Norman HinshelwoodUnited Kingdom"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"[153]
Nikolay Nikolaevich SemenovUSSR
1957Lord (Alexander R.) ToddUnited Kingdom"for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"[154]
1958 Frederick SangerUnited Kingdom"for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"[155]
1959Jaroslav HeyrovskýCzechoslovakia"for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"[156]
1960Willard Frank LibbyUnited States"for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"[157]
1961 Melvin CalvinUnited States"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"[158]
1962Max Ferdinand PerutzUnited Kingdom"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"[159]
 John Cowdery KendrewUnited Kingdom
1963Karl ZieglerFederal Republic of Germany"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"[160]
Giulio NattaItaly
1964Dorothy Crowfoot HodgkinUnited Kingdom"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"[161]
1965Robert Burns WoodwardUnited States"for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"[162]
1966Robert S. MullikenUnited States"for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"[163]
1967Manfred EigenFederal Republic of Germany"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"[164]
Ronald George Wreyford NorrishUnited Kingdom
George PorterUnited Kingdom
1968Lars OnsagerUnited States"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"[165]
1969Derek H. R. BartonUnited Kingdom"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"[166]
Odd HasselNorway
1970 Luis F. LeloirArgentina"for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"[167]
1971Gerhard HerzbergCanada"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"[168]
1972 Christian B. AnfinsenUnited States"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[169]
Stanford MooreUnited States"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"[169]
William H. SteinUnited States
1973Ernst Otto FischerFederal Republic of Germany"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"[170]
Geoffrey WilkinsonUnited Kingdom
1974Paul J. FloryUnited States"for his fundamental work, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules"[171]
1975John Warcup CornforthAustralia
United Kingdom
"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"[172]
Vladimir PrelogSwitzerland"for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"[172]
1976William N. LipscombUnited States"for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"[173]
1977Ilya PrigogineBelgium"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"[174]
1978Peter D. MitchellUnited Kingdom"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"[175]
1979Herbert C. BrownUnited States"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"[176]
Georg WittigFederal Republic of Germany
1980 Paul BergUnited States"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[177]
 Walter GilbertUnited States"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[177]
 Frederick SangerUnited Kingdom
1981Kenichi FukuiJapan"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"[178]
Roald HoffmannUnited States
1982Aaron KlugUnited Kingdom"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"[179]
1983Henry TaubeUnited States"for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"[180]
1984Robert Bruce MerrifieldUnited States"for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"[181]
1985Herbert A. HauptmanUnited States"for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"[182]
Jerome KarleUnited States
1986 Dudley R. HerschbachUnited States"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"[183]
Yuan T. LeeUnited States
John C. PolanyiCanada
1987Donald J. CramUnited States"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"[184]
 Jean-Marie LehnFrance
Charles J. PedersenUnited States
1988Johann DeisenhoferFederal Republic of Germany"for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"[185]
 Robert HuberFederal Republic of Germany
Hartmut MichelFederal Republic of Germany
1989Sidney AltmanCanada
United States
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[186]
 Thomas R. CechUnited States
1990Elias James CoreyUnited States"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"[187]
1991Richard R. ErnstSwitzerland"for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"[188]
1992 Rudolph A. MarcusUnited States"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[189]
1993Kary B. MullisUnited States"for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his invention of the polymerase chaen reaction (PCR) method"[190]
Michael SmithCanada"for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"[190]
1994George A. OlahUnited States"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"[191]
1995Paul J. Crutzenthe Netherlands"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"[192]
Mario J. MolinaMario J. MolinaUnited States
 F. Sherwood RowlandUnited States
1996Robert F. Curl Jr.United States"for their discovery of fullerenes"[193]
 Sir Harold W. KrotoUnited Kingdom
Richard E. SmalleyUnited States
1997Paul D. BoyerUnited States"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"[194]
John E. WalkerUnited Kingdom
Jens C. SkouDenmark"for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"[194]
1998Walter KohnUnited States"for his development of the density-functional theory"[195]
John A. PopleUnited Kingdom"for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"[195]
1999Ahmed H. ZewailEgypt
United States
"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"[196]
2000Alan J. HeegerUnited States"for their discovery and development of conductive polymers"[197]
Alan G MacDiarmidUnited States
New Zealand
Hideki ShirakawaJapan
2001William S. KnowlesUnited States"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"[198]
 Ryoji NoyoriJapan
K. Barry SharplessUnited States"for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"[198]
2002 John B. FennUnited States"for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"[199]
Koichi TanakaJapan
 Kurt WüthrichSwitzerland"for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"[199]
2003Peter AgreUnited States"for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for the discovery of water channels"[200]
 Roderick MacKinnonUnited States"for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"[200]
2004 Aaron CiechanoverIsrael"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"[201]
 Avram HershkoIsrael
 Irwin RoseUnited States
2005Yves ChauvinFrance"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"[202]
 Robert H. GrubbsUnited States
Richard R. SchrockUnited States
2006 Roger D. KornbergUnited States"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[203]
2007 Gerhard ErtlGermany"for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"[204]
2008 Osamu ShimomuraUnited States[205]"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"[206]
 Martin ChalfieUnited States
 Roger Y. TsienUnited States

Medicine me Nobel prize jiite waala log (decided by Karolinska Institutet)


Santiago Ramón y Cajal, 1906
  • 1901 - Emil Adolf von Behring, Germany, for making a serum to stop people getting the disease diphtheria[207]
  • 1902 - Ronald Ross, United Kingdom, for work on malaria[208]
  • 1903 - Niels Ryberg Finsen, Denmark, for treating lupus vulgaris (tuberculosis of the skin), with light radiation.[209]
  • 1904 - Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Russia, for his work on the way digestion works.[210]
  • 1905 - Robert Koch, Germany, for studying tuberculosis[211]
  • 1906 - Camillo Golgi, Italy and Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Spain for their work on the parts of the nervous system[212]
  • 1907 - Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, France, for his work on the way protozoa can cause disease[213]
  • 1908 - Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, Russia, and Paul Ehrlich, Germany, for finding out how immunity fights disease[214]
  • 1909 - Emil Theodor Kocher, Switzerland, for his work on the thyroid gland[215]
  • 1910, Albrecht Kossel, Germany, for his work on proteins and nucleic substances[216]


Allvar Gullstrand, 1911
  • 1911 - Allvar Gullstrand, Sweden, for his work on light refraction and the eye[217]
  • 1912 - Alexis Carrel, France, for his work on joining blood vessels and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs[218]
  • 1913 - Charles Robert Richet, France, for his work on anaphylaxis[219]
  • 1914 - Robert Bárány, Austria, for his work on the ear and balance[220]
  • 1915 - Not awarded
  • 1916 - Not awarded
  • 1917 - Not awarded
  • 1918 - Not awarded
  • 1919 - Jules Bordet, Belgium, for his discoveries about immunity[221]


Frederick Banting, 1923
  • 1920 - Schack August Steenberg Krogh, Denmark, for his discoveries about capillaries[222]
  • 1921 - Not awarded
  • 1922 - Archibald Vivian Hill, United Kingdom, for finding out how muscles make heat[223]
  • 1922 - Otto Fritz Meyerhof, Germany, for finding out how oxygen makes chemical changes in lactic acid in muscles[223]
  • 1923 - Frederick Grant Banting, Canada and John James Richard Macleod, Canada, for the discovery of insulin"[224]
  • 1924 - Willem Einthoven, The Netherlands, for inventing the electrocardiogram"[225]
  • 1925 - Not awarded
  • 1926 - Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger, Denmark, for his discovery that an infection could lead to cancer[226]
  • 1927 - Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Austria, for his discovery that malaria inoculation helps the treatment of paralysis[227]
  • 1928 - Charles Jules Henri Nicolle, France, for his work on typhus[228]
  • 1929, Christiaan Eijkman, The Netherlands, for finding out how to use a vitamin to stop nerve pain"[229]
  • 1929 - Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, United Kingdom, for his discovery of the vitamins that help growth[229]


  • 1930 - Karl Landsteiner, for discovery of human blood types[230]
  • 1931 - Otto Heinrich Warburg, Germany, for his discovery of the respiratory enzyme[231]
  • 1932 Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, United Kingdom, and Edgar Douglas Adrian, United Kingdom, for discoveries about neurons (nerve cells)[232]
  • 1933 - Thomas Hunt Morgan, United States, for his work on chromosomes and heredity"[233]
  • 1934 - George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot, and William Parry Murphy, United States, for their work on treating the liver to help with anaemia[234]
  • 1935 - Hans Spemann, Germany, for finding the organizer effect in embryonic development[235]
  • 1936 - Sir Henry Hallett Dale, United Kingdom, and Otto Loewi, Austria for their discoveries about neurotransmitters and nerve impulses[236]
  • 1937 - Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt, Hungary, for his discoveries about cells, vitamin C and chemical changes of fumaric acid[237]
  • 1938 - Corneille Jean François Heymans, Belgium, for work on the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the control of breathing[238]
  • 1939 - Gerhard Domagk, Germany, for finding the antibacterial effects of prontosil[239]


Alexander Fleming, 1945
  • 1940 - Not awarded
  • 1941 - Not awarded
  • 1942 - Not awarded
  • 1943 - Carl Peter Henrik Dam, Denmark, for his discovery of vitamin K[240]
  • 1943 - Edward Adelbert Doisy, United States, for work on vitamin K"[240]
  • 1944 - Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser, United States, for their discoveries about single nerve fibres[241]
  • 1945 - Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chaen, United Kingdom and Howard Walter Florey, Australia, for the discovery of penicillin and making it into an antibiotic to cure infectious diseases[242]
  • 1946 - Hermann Joseph Muller, United States, for the discovery of mutations caused by X-ray irradiation[243]
  • 1947 - Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz, United States, for their work on catalytic conversion of glycogen[244]
  • 1947 - Bernardo Alberto Houssay, Argentina, for finding out how the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe works in the metabolism of sugar[244]
  • 1948 - Paul Hermann Müller, Switzerland, for his work on DDT as a poison against several insects[245]
  • 1949 - Walter Rudolf Hess, Switzerland, for his discovery of the way the brain controls the internal organs[246]
  • 1949 - Antonio Caetano De Abreu Freire Egas Moniz, Portugal, for using leucotomy (brain surgery) to cure some mental illnesses.[246]


Selman Waksman, 1952
  • 1950 - Philip Showalter Hench, Edward Calvin Kendall, United States, and Tadeusz Reichstein, Switzerland, for finding out about the hormones of the adrenal cortex.[247]
  • 1951 - Max Theiler, Union of South Africa, for his discoveries about yellow fever.[248]
  • 1952 - Selman Abraham Waksman, United States, for finding streptomycin, the first antibiotic to work against tuberculosis[249]
  • 1953 - Hans Adolf Krebs, United Kingdom, for his discovery of the citric acid cycle[250]
  • 1953 - Fritz Albert Lipmann, United States, for his discovery of co-enzyme A[250]
  • 1954 - John Franklin Enders, Frederick Chapman Robbins, and Thomas Huckle Weller, United States, for finding the poliomyelitis virus and growing it in a laboratory[251]
  • 1955 - Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell, Sweden, for his discoveries about enzymes changing with oxygen[252]
  • 1956 - André Frédéric Cournand, Dickinson W. Richards, United States, and Werner Forssmann, Federal Republic of Germany, for their discoveries about heart catheterization and changes in the circulatory system[253]
  • 1957 - Daniel Bovet, Italy for his work on antihistamine and what they do to parts of the body[254]
  • 1958 - George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum, United States, for finding out how genes work[255]
  • 1958 - Joshua Lederberg, United States, for finding out how genes can work together and the organization of the genes in bacteria[255]
  • 1959 - Arthur Kornberg and Severo Ochoa, United States, for their discovery of how living things join ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)[256]


  • 1960 - Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Australia, and Peter Brian Medawar, United Kingdom, for finding out how the body's immunity to things can change.[257]
  • 1961 - Georg von Békésy, United States, for his discoveries about the cochlea"[258]
  • 1962 - Francis Harry Compton Crick, United Kingdom, James Dewey Watson, United States, and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins, New Zealand, for finding the structure of nucleic acids and its importance in moving information in living things[259]
  • 1963 - Sir John Carew Eccles, Australia, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, United Kingdom, and Andrew Fielding Huxley, United Kingdom, for their discoveries about nerve cell membrane[260]
  • 1964 - Konrad Bloch, United States, and Feodor Lynen, Federal Republic of Germany, for finding out how cholesterol and fatty acid work in the body[261]
  • 1965 - François Jacob, André Lwoff, and Jacques Monod, France, for finding out how genes control control viruses [262]
  • 1966 - Peyton Rous, United States, for his discovery that viruses can cause tumours[263]
  • 1966 - Charles Brenton Huggins, United States, for using hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer[263]
  • 1967 - Ragnar Granit, Sweden, Haldan Keffer Hartline, and George Wald, United States, for their discoveries about how the eye works[264]
  • 1968 - Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana, and Marshall W. Nirenberg, United States, for their understanding of the genetic code and its role in protein synthesis[265]
  • 1969 - Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey, and Salvador E. Luria, United States, for finding how viruses reproduce[266]


David Baltimore, 1975
  • 1970 - Julius Axelrod, Ulf von Euler, Sweden, and Sir Bernard Katz, United Kingdom, for finding out about transmittors in the nerve terminals and how they work[267]
  • 1971 - Earl W. Sutherland, Jr., United States, for his discoveries about hormones[268]
  • 1972 - Gerald M. Edelman, United States, and Rodney R. Porter, United Kingdom, for finding out the chemical structure of antibodies[269]
  • 1973 - Karl von Frisch, Federal Republic of Germany, Konrad Lorenz, Austria, and Nikolaas Tinbergen, United Kingdom, for their discoveries about individual and social behaviour patterns[270]
  • 1974 - Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, Belgium, and George E. Palade, United States, for their discoveries about cells[271]
  • 1975 - David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco, and Howard Martin Temin, United States, for finding what happens when tumour causing viruses infect normal cells.[272]
  • 1976 - Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek, United States, for their discoveries about the beginnings and spreading of infectious diseases[273]
  • 1977 - Roger Guillemin, Andrew W. Schally, United States, for their discoveries about how the brain makes peptide hormone[274]
  • 1977 - Rosalyn Yalow, United States, for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones[274]
  • 1978 - Werner Arber, Switzerland, Daniel Nathans, United States, and Hamilton O. Smith, United States for finding restriction enzymes and their use in molecular genetics"[275]
  • 1979 - Allan M. Cormack, United States, and Godfrey N. Hounsfield, United Kingdom, for the development of computer assisted tomography[276]


file:Rita Levi-Montalcini in 1965.jpg
Rita Levi-Montalcini, 1986
  • 1980 - Baruj Benacerraf, United States, Jean Dausset, France, and George D. Snell, United States, for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that control immunological reactions[277]
  • 1981 - Roger W. Sperry, United States, for finding out the role of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain[278]
  • 1981 - David H. Hubel, United States, and Torsten N. Wiesel, Sweden, for their discoveries about information processing in the visual system"[278]
  • 1982 - Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson, Sweden, and John R. Vane, United Kingdom, for their discoveries about prostaglandins.[279]
  • 1983 - Barbara McClintock, United States, for her discovery of mobile genetic elements[280]
  • 1984 - Niels K. Jerne, Denmark, Georges J.F. Köhler, Federal Republic of Germany, César Milstein, Argentina and the United Kingdom, for theories about the development and control of the immune system and the discovery of monoclonal antibodies are made[281]
  • 1985 - Michael S. Brown, and Joseph L. Goldstein, United States, for finding out how cholesterol is controlled[282]
  • 1986 - Stanley Cohen, United States, and Rita Levi-Montalcini, Italy and the United States, for their discoveries of growth factors[283]
  • 1987 - Susumu Tonegawa, Japan, for his discovery how the genes make different antibodies[284]
  • 1988 - Sir James W. Black, United Kingdom, Gertrude B. Elion, and George H. Hitchings, United States, for finding important rules for drug treatment[285]
  • 1989 - J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus, United States, found how disturbing a large family of genes that control the normal growth and division of cells, can cause normal cells to change into cancer cells.[286]


Ferid Murad, 1998
  • 1990 - Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas, United States, for their discoveries about organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of disease"[287]
  • 1991 - Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann, Federal Republic of Germany, for finding what single ion channels do in cells[288]
  • 1992 - Edmond H. Fischer, Switzerland and the United States, and Edwin G. Krebs, United States, for finding reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological control mechanism[289]
  • 1993 - Richard J. Roberts, United Kingdom, and Phillip A. Sharp, United States, for their discoveries of split genes[290]
  • 1994 - Alfred G. Gilman, and Martin Rodbell, United States, for finding G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells[291]
  • 1995 - Edward B. Lewis, United States, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Federal Republic of Germany, and Eric F. Wieschaus, United States, for finding how embryonic development is changed by genes[292]
  • 1996 - Peter C. Doherty, Australia, and Rolf M. Zinkernagel, Switzerland, for finding how the immune system knows which cells are virus-infected[293]
  • 1997 - Stanley B. Prusiner, United States, for his discovery of Prions, proteins that make people sick[294]
  • 1998 - Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad, United States, for finding how nitric oxide works as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system[295]
  • 1999 - Günter Blobel, United States, for the discovery that proteins have built-in signals that control their transport and localization in the cell[296]


Luc Montagnier, 2008
  • 2000 - Arvid Carlsson, Sweden, Paul Greengard, United States, and Eric R. Kandel, United States, for their discoveries about signal transduction in the nervous system"[297]
  • 2001 - Leland H. Hartwell, United States, Tim Hunt, United Kingdom, and Sir Paul M. Nurse, United Kingdom, for finding the main controls in the cell cycle[298]
  • 2002 - Sydney Brenner, United Kingdom, H. Robert Horvitz, United States, and John E. Sulston, United Kingdom, for their finding the genetic controls of organ development and programmed cell death[299]
  • 2003 - Paul Lauterbur, United States, and Sir Peter Mansfield, United Kingdom, for inventing magnetic resonance imaging"[300]
  • 2004 - Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck, United States, for finding odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system, (how we smell things)[301]
  • 2005 - Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren, Australia, for finding the bacterium Helicobacter pylori that causes gastritis and peptic ulcer disease[302]
  • 2006 - Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello, United States, for finding how RNA interference can switch genes "on" or "off"[303]
  • 2007 - Mario R. Capecchi, United States, Sir Martin J. Evans, United Kingdom, Oliver Smithies, United States, for finding how to change genes in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells[304]
  • 2008 - Harald zur Hausen, Germany, for finding the human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer[305]
  • 2008 - Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier, France, for finding the human immunodeficiency virus[305]
  • Winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature (decided by the Swedish Academy)
  • Winners of the Nobel Peace Prize (decided by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, appointed by the Norwegian Parliament, Stortinget)
  • Winners of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (decided by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences)


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  130. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  131. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1930". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  132. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  133. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  134. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  135. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  136. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  137. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  138. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  139. 139.0 139.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  140. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  141. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  142. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  143. 143.0 143.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  144. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  145. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  146. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  147. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  148. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  149. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  150. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  151. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  152. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  153. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  154. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  155. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  156. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  157. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1960". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  158. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  159. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  160. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  161. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  162. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  163. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  164. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  165. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  166. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  167. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  168. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  169. 169.0 169.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  170. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  171. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  172. 172.0 172.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  173. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1976". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  174. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  175. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  176. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  177. 177.0 177.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  178. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  179. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  180. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1983". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  181. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  182. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  183. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  184. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  185. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  186. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  187. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  188. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  189. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  190. 190.0 190.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  191. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  192. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  193. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  194. 194.0 194.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  195. 195.0 195.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  196. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  197. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  198. 198.0 198.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  199. 199.0 199.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  200. 200.0 200.1 "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  201. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  202. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  203. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  204. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  205. As of 26 October 2008, the nobelprize.org website page for the 2008 award gives Shimomura's country as "USA". However, the press release from the Nobel Foundation on 8 October 2008, announcing the award, states that Shimomura is a Japanese citizen. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008–Press Release". Nobelprize.org. 2008-10-08. Retrieved 2008-10-08.
  206. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-08.
  207. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  208. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  209. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  210. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  211. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  212. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  213. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  214. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  215. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  216. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  217. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  218. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  219. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  220. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  221. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  222. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  223. 223.0 223.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  224. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  225. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  226. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  227. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  228. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1928". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  229. 229.0 229.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  230. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  231. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  232. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  233. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  234. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  235. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  236. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  237. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  238. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  239. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  240. 240.0 240.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  241. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  242. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  243. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  244. 244.0 244.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  245. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  246. 246.0 246.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  247. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  248. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  249. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  250. 250.0 250.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  251. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  252. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  253. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  254. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  255. 255.0 255.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  256. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  257. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  258. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  259. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  260. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  261. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  262. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  263. 263.0 263.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  264. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  265. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  266. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  267. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  268. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  269. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  270. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  271. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  272. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  273. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  274. 274.0 274.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  275. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  276. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  277. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  278. 278.0 278.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  279. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  280. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  281. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  282. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  283. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  284. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  285. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  286. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  287. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  288. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  289. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  290. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  291. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  292. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  293. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  294. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  295. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  296. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  297. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  298. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  299. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  300. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  301. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  302. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  303. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  304. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-10-08.
  305. 305.0 305.1 "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-06.

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