India

India: Bharatiya Upmahadwip ka desh

Republic of India
भारत गणराज्य
Bharat Gaṇarājya
Flag of India.svgEmblem of India.svg
India ka jhandaNational Emblem
Motto: Satyameva Jayate
English: Truth Alone Triumphs
Sanskrit:सत्यमेव जयते
jay hind
India (orthographic projection).svg
Rajabhasaहिन्दी Hindi, Angreji
Rashtra Gaana:Jana Gana Mana
RajdhaniNew Delhi
28º 34' N, 77º 12' E
Sarkaar
 - President
 - Prime Minister
Federal republic

Draupadi murmu
Narendra Modi
Ajaadi
 -Date
 - United Kingdom (

Angrejon se)
15 August 1947

Kshetrafal
 - Total
 - % paani
7th position
3,287,263 km²
9.56%
Janasankhya
 - Total (2011)
 -Density
 - 2nd position
1,210,854,977
403.8/km2
GDP
 - Total (2019)
 - Per capita
5th position
$ 2,850,000,000
$ 2,041
MudraIndian rupee(INR)
Samay MandalUTC +5:30
Durbhasha code+91
Internet TLD.in

India (Bharat, Hindustan), South Asia ka ek desh hai. Iski abaadi 1,370,000,000 se jaada hai. India ki raajdhaani New Delhi hai. Is desh ki 22 adhikarik bhashayen hain. Ye kshetrafal me duniya ka satvaan (7th) sab se bada desh hai aur abaadi mein dusra sab se bada desh hai, lekin duniya ki sab se badi democracy hai. Iske dakshin me Indian Ocean, pashchim me Arabian Sea, purab me Bay of Bengal hai. Iske border ke paschim me Pakistan, uttar me China, Bhutan, Nepal aur poorab me Bangladesh aur Myanmar hai. India ke dakshin me Indian Ocean me to the east. India ke dakshin me Sri Lanka, Maldives, aur Indonesia hai.

Amritsar ke Golden Temple
National symbols of the Republic of India (Official)
National heritage animal2005-bandipur-tusker.jpg
National birdPavo muticus (Tierpark Berlin) - 1017-899-(118).jpg
National treefile:Baragad tree on the banks of Khadakwasla Dam.jpg
National flowerSacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera.jpg
National animalPanthera tigris.jpg
National aquatic marine mammalPlatanistaHardwicke.jpg
National reptileKing-Cobra.jpg
National heritage mammalHanuman Langur.jpg
National fruitAn Unripe Mango Of Ratnagiri (India).JPG
National templeNew Delhi Temple.jpg
National riverRiver Ganges.JPG
National mountainNanda Devi 2006.JPG

Etymology

India ke naam Indus se aais hai, jon ki purana Farsi bhasa me Hindu sabd hae. Farsi me ii Sanskrit सिन्धु (Sindhu) se aais hae, jisme ii Indus Naddi ke naam hae. Purana jamana ke Greeek logan Hindusani log ke Indoi (Ινδοί), yaaniki Indus ke log, bolate the. India ke Constitution me des ko Bharat (pronounced [ˈbʱaːrət̪] bola jata hai. Bharat naam India ke ek purana raja Bharata se aya hai. Hindustan ([ɦɪnd̪ʊˈst̪aːn] , jo ki Farsi se aaya hai, ka matalab “Hinduyon ka desh” hai.

Itihaas

India ek prachin des hae jiska lamba itihas hae. Adhunik India 1947 se ajaad desh hai,jo pehle British imperial crown aur usse pehle East India company ke indirect control Mein Tha.India ke itihaas uu time se suruu hoe hae jab ki 500,000 saal pahle hian pe Homo erectus rahat rahin, Iske baad hian pe 75,000 saal pahile Homo sapiensrahe ke suruu karin. Indus Valley Civilization, jon ki Indian sub-continent ke northwestern hissa me c. 3300 se 1300 BCE talak rahaa, India ke pahila khaas civilization rahaa. Iron Age me ek Vedic Civilization, Indo-Gangetic plain me suru bhais jisme Magadha kingdom rahaa jon ki Mahavira aur Gautama Buddha ke 6th or 5th century BCE me janam dis rahaa.

4th and 3rd centuries BCE me lagbhag subcontinent ke sab hissa ke Maurya Empire aapan niche kar liis. Iske baad 1500 chhota chhota kingdom, jiske middle ke nnam se jaana jaawe hae, rahaa. Ii time India ke economy jorr se barha rahaa. 4h century me India ke north aur cental hissa ke unite kar ke Gupta Empire banaa jon ki 200 saal talak chalaa. Ii time Hinduism aur aage barrha. South India me Chalukyas, Cholas, Pallavas, aur Pandyas raj karat rahin jon ki Hinduism aur Buddhism ke Asia ke dusra des me export karin.

South India me, Kerala 77 CE se Roman Empire se trade karat rahaa. Islam bhi pahile Kerala me Muslim traders se aais. Muslim rule subcontinent me 712 CE me aais jab ki Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim Sindh aur Multan pr kapjaa karis.[1] Iske baad dher aur Muslim invaders central Asia se aain aur Delhi Sultanate aur Mughal Empire jaise Empire ke suruu karin.

Mughal Empire ke saathe dher Rajput kingdoms, aur dher Hindu states, jaise ki Vijayanagara Empire, Maratha Empire, aur Ahom Kingdom bhi rahaa. 18th century me Moghul Empire Afghans, Balochis, Sikhs, aur Marathas ke kaaran kamjor hoe gais. .[2]

Mid-18th century ke baad, India ke dhire dhire British East India Company aapan niche kar liis. Company ke raaj se nakhusi ke kaaran Indian Rebellion of 1857 bhais aur iske baad , India ke was directly British Crown ke niche karaa gais. Iske baad struggle for independence ke Indian National Congress suru karis jiske baad me Muslim League bhi join karis. Subcontinent ke United Kingdom se 1947 me ajaadi mila aur des ke partition kar ke India aur Pakistan banawa gais.

Pradhan Mantri ki suchi

No.NameChapaEntered OfficeLeft officeBirthDeathPolitical party
1Jawahar Lal Nehru 15 August 1947 c27 May 1964 114 November 188927 May 1964Indian National Congress
2Gulzarilal Nanda27 May 19649 June 1964 *4 July 189815 January 1998Indian National Congress
3Lal Bahadur Shastri 9 June 196411 January 1966 12 October 190411 January 1966Indian National Congress
4Gulzarilal Nanda11 January 196624 January 1966 *4 July 189815 January 1998Indian National Congress
5Indira Gandhi 24 January 1966 2 c24 March 197719 November 191731 October 1984Indian National Congress
6Morarji Desai 24 March 197728 July 1979 429 February 189610 April 1995Janata Party
7Charan Singhfile:Chaudhary-charan-singh.jpg28 July 197914 January 1980 323 December 190229 May 1987Janata Party
8Indira Gandhi 14 January 1980 231 October 1984 119 November 191731 October 1984Indian National Congress
9Rajiv Gandhi31 October 1984 c2 December 198920 August 194421 May 1991Indian National Congress
10Vishwanath Pratap Singhfile:V P Singh.jpg2 December 198910 November 1990 325 June 193127 November 2008Janata Dal
11Chandra Shekhar10 November 199021 June 19911 July 19278 July 2007Samajwadi Janata Party
12P. V. Narasimha Raofile:P V Narasimha Rao.jpg21 June 1991 c16 May 199628 June 192123 December 2004Indian National Congress
13Atal Bihari Vajpayee16 May 19961 June 1996 3</sup>25 December 192416 August 2018Bharatiya Janata Party
14H. D. Deve Gowdafile:H D Devegauda.jpg1 June 199621 April 1997 318 May 1933AliveJanata Dal
15Inder Kumar Gujral 21 April 199719 March 19984 December 191930 November 2012Janata Dal
16Atal Bihari Vajpayee19 March 1998 c22 May 200425 December 192416 August 2018Bharatiya Janata Party
17Dr. Manmohan Singh 22 May 200426 May 201426 September 1932AliveIndian National Congress
18Narendra Damodardas Modi 26 May 2014 cIncumbent17 September 1950AliveBharatiya Janata Party

Notes

  • * Interim - It is debatable whether Mr. Gulzari Lal Nanda was a Prime Minister or an Acting Prime Minister. The constitution does not have a position of acting Prime Minister. Mr. Nanda was sworn in as the Prime Minister of India. In contrast, the constitution provides for an acting President who discharges the duties of a President. Hence, constitutional experts and historians now agree that Mr. Nanda is the second Prime Minister of India.

c-indicates a full term

  • 1 Assassinated or Died in Office
  • 2 Returned to Office
  • 3 Resigned
  • 4 Dismissed by President following a no-confidence motion

Presidents

Ii suchi ke number karaa gais hae uu order pe jispe uu logan presential election ke jitin rahaa. Varahagiri Venkata Giri, Muhammad Hidayatullah, aur Basappa Danappa Jatti, acting president rahin, aur ii kaaran se number nai karaa gais hae. India ke President koi party ke member nai rahe hae aur Political party waala column ii dekhae hae ki president elect hoe se pahile kon party me rahaa.

#NamePortraitTook officeLeft officeVice PresidentNotes
1Dr Rajendra Prasadfile:Dr.Rajendra.Prasad.jpg26 January 195013 May 1962Dr.S RadhakrishnanPrasad, ajaad India ke pahila President rahaa aur Bihar ke rahaa.[3][4] Uu India ke ajaadi ke larai me bhi involved rahaa.[5] Prasad, ekke President rahaa jon ki dui dafe President banaa.[6]
2Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 13 May 196213 May 1967Zakir HussainRadhakrishnan was a prominent philosopher, writer, a Knight of the Realm and also held the position of vice chancellor of the Andhra University and Banaras Hindu University.[7] He was also made a Knight of the Golden Army of Angels by Pope Paul VI.[8]
3Zakir Hussain13 May 19673 May 1969Varahagiri Venkata GiriHussain was vice chancellor of the Aligarh Muslim University and a recipient of Padma Vibhushan and Bharat Ratna.[9] He died before his term of office was ended.
Varahagiri Venkata Giri *3 May 196920 July 1969Giri was appointed as acting president following the death of Hussain.[10] He resigned in a few months to take part in the presidential elections.[11]
Muhammad Hidayatullah *file:Muhammad Hidayatullah.jpg20 July 196924 August 1969Hidayatullah served as the Chief Justice of India, and was a recipient of the Order of the British Empire.[12] He served as acting president until the election of Giri as the President of India.
4Varahagiri Venkata Giri24 August 196924 August 1974Gopal Swarup PathakGiri is the only person to have served as both an acting president and president of India. He was a recipient of the Bharat Ratna, and has functioned as Indian Minister of Labour and High Commissioner to Ceylon (Sri Lanka).[13]
5Fakhruddin Ali Ahmedfile:Dr fakhruddin ali ahmed.jpg24 August 197411 February 1977Basappa Danappa JattiFakhruddin Ali Ahmed served as a Minister before being elected as president. He died in 1977 before his term of office ended, and was the second Indian president to have died during a term of office.[14]
Basappa Danappa Jatti *file:B D Jatti.jpg11 February 197725 July 1977Jatti was the vice president of India during Ahmed's term of office, and was sworn in as acting president upon Ahmed's death. He earlier functioned as the Chief Minister for the State of Mysore.[14][15]
6Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 25 July 197725 July 1982Muhammad HidayatullahN.S.Reddy was the first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh State. Reddy was the only Member of Parliament from the Janata Party to get elected from Andhra Pradesh.[16] He was unanimously elected Speaker of the Lok Sabha on 26 March 1977 and relinquished this office on 13 July 1977 to become the 6th President of India.
7Giani Zail Singh25 July 198225 July 1987Ramaswamy Venkataraman
In March 1972, Singh assumed the position of chief Minister of Punjab, and in 1980, he became Union Home Minister.[17]
8Ramaswamy Venkataraman 25 July 198725 July 1992Shankar Dayal SharmaIn 1942, Venkataraman was jailed by the British for his involvement in the India's independence movement.[18] After his release, he was elected to independent India’s Provisional Parliament as a member of the Congress Party in 1950 and eventually joined the central government, where he first served as Minister of Finance and Industry and later as Minister of Defence.[19]
9Shankar Dayal Sharma25 July 199225 July 1997Kocheril Raman NarayananSharma was Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh, and the Indian Minister for Communications. He has also served as the governor of Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Maharashtra.[20]
10Kocheril Raman Narayananfile:KRN Giddens.jpg25 July 199725 July 2002Krishan Kant
Narayanan served as India's ambassador to Thailand, Turkey, China and United States of America. He received doctorates in Science and Law and was also a chancellor in several universities.[21] He was also the vice-chancellor of Jawaharlal Nehru University.[22]
11A. P. J. Abdul Kalam 25 July 200225 July 2007Bhairon Singh ShekhawatKalam, was a scientist who played a leading role in the development of India's ballistic missile and nuclear weapons programs.[23] Kalam also received the Bharat Ratna.
12Pratibha Patil 25 July 2007IncumbentMohammad Hamid AnsariPatil is the first woman to become the President of India. She was also the first female Governor of Rajasthan.[24][25]
13Pranab Mukherjee25 July 201225 July 2017Mohammad Hamid AnsariIn a political career spanning five decades, Mukherjee has been a senior leader in the Indian National Congress and has occupied several ministerial portfolios in the Government of India.
14Ram Nath Kovind25 July 2017CurrentMohammad Hamid Ansari

M. Venkaiah Naidu

Previously he had served as the 26th Governor of Bihar from 2015 to 2017 and was a Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha from 1994 to 2006. Kovind was nominated as a presidential candidate by the ruling NDA coalition and won the 2017 presidential election.
  • Symbol (*) light brown backgroundke saathe, ii dekhae hae ki iiacting president rahaa.

| 13| Pranav Mukharjee| file:Pranav MukharjeeIndia.jpg

States and union territories

India me 28 states aur 9 union territories hae (jisme national capital territory bhi hae)[26]. Union territories ke President of India se appoint karaa gais administrators chalawe hae. Dui territor, (Delhi aur Puducherry) ke partial statehood dewa gais hae, jisme ek elected legislature aur executive councils of ministers hae, lekin state e raam ii logan ke lage puura taagat nai hae.Article 370 5 august ko remove kiya tha aur tab 9 union terretories ho gaye

    States
NumberStateCodeCapital
1Andhra PradeshAPHyderabad
2Arunachal PradeshARItanagar
3AssamASDispur
4BiharBRPatna
5ChhattisgarhCGRaipur
6GoaGAPanaji
7GujaratGJGandhinagar
8HaryanaHRChandigarh
9Himachal PradeshHPShimla
10Jammu and KashmirJKSrinagar
11JharkhandJHRanchi
12KarnatakaKABangalore
13KeralaKLThiruvananthapuram
14Madhya PradeshMPBhopal
15MaharashtraMHMumbai
16ManipurMNImphal
17MeghalayaMLShillong
18MizoramMZAizawl
19NagalandNLKohima
20OrissaORBhubaneswar
21PunjabPBChandigarh
22RajasthanRJJaipur
23SikkimSKGangtok
24Tamil NaduTNChennai
25TripuraTRAgartala
26Uttar PradeshUPLucknow
27UttarakhandULDehradun
28West BengalWBKolkata
29TelanganaTSHyderabad
    Union territories
NumberUnion territoryCodeCapital
AAndaman and Nicobar IslandsANPort Blair
BChandigarhCHChandigarh
CDadra and Nagar HaveliDNSilvassa
DDaman and DiuDDDaman
ELakshadweepLDKavaratti
FNational Capital TerritoryNDNew Delhi
GPuducherryPYPuducherry
HKashmir
ILadakhcapital lehLA

Chapa ke gallery

The history of india is widely spread.The language Sanskrit is considered as mother of all languages

References

  1. "History in Chronological Order". Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 2008-01-09.
  2. "Pakistan". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2008-01-09.
  3. "Dr. Rajendra Prasad". The Hindu. 7 May 1952. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  4. "Republic Day", Time, 6 February 1950. Retrieved on 30 Navambar 2008.
  5. "Rajendra Prasad's birth anniversary celebrated". The Hindu. 10 December 2006. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  6. Harish Khare (6 December 2006). "Selecting the next Rashtrapati". The Hindu. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  7. Ramachandra Guha (15 April 2006). "Why Amartya Sen should become the next president of India". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  8. "Dr S. Radhakrishnan". The Sunday Tribune. 30 January 2000. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  9. "Zakir Husain, Dr". Vice President's Secretariat. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  10. "Shekhawat need not compare himself to Giri: Shashi Bhushan". The Hindu. 12 July 2007. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  11. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named resign
  12. "Hidayatullah, Shri M". Vice President's Secretariat. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  13. "Giri, Shri Varahagiri Venkata". Vice President's Secretariat. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Gallery of Indian Presidents". Press Information Bureau of the Government of India. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  15. "Jatti, Shri Basappa Danappa". Vice President's Secretariat. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  16. Bhargava, G.S.. "Making of the Prez - Congress chief selects PM as well as President", The Tribune. Retrieved on 6 Janwari 2009.
  17. Wolpert, Stanley A. (1999). "India". University of California Press. p. 217. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
  18. Hazarika, Sanjoy. "Man In The News; India's Mild New President: Ramaswamy Venkataraman", The New York Times, 17 July 1987. Retrieved on 6 Janwari 2009.
  19. "Venkataraman, Shri R." Vice President's Secretariat. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  20. Navtej Sarna (27 December 1999). "Former President Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma passes away". Embassy of India, Washington D.C. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
  21. "Narayanan, Shri K, R". Vice President's Secretariat. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
  22. "The BJP's aim was to get rid of me". Confederation of Human Rights Organizations. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
  23. Ramana, M. V.; Reddy, C. Rammanohar (2002). Prisoners of the Nuclear Dream. New Delhi: Orient Longman. p. 169. http://books.google.com/books?id=IjZA-bQde1wC&pg=RA1-PA169&dq=%22Abdul+Kalam%22+%22%22Pokhran-II%22&ei=R6niSOzbDI3gtgPx0tiOBw&sig=ACfU3U0vTUY4GkXlltbzgECN98hWD8A6zQ.
  24. Emily Wax. "Female President Elected in India", The Washington Post, 22 July 2007. Retrieved on 2 Disambar 2008.
  25. "Pratibha Patil is Rajasthan's first woman governor". Express India. 8 November 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
  26. [1] States and Union Territories of India - Source - Govt of India Official Website

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