Bhasa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bhasa se insaan log ek duusre se baat chit kare hae.

Bahut log bhasa ke bahut rakam se samjhe ke kosis karin hae. Jaise ki:

  1. ek rakam hae jisse ki chij, kaam or soch ke baare me batawa jaaawe sake hae
  2. dher chij jon ki alag alag log ke khatir ekke matlab hoe hae
  3. ek rakam ke soche waala chij
  4. chinh jon ki action aur inaction ke imply kare hae
  5. koi rakam ke baat chit
  6. Bhasa, admii log ke biich me ek samjhauta hae ki rakam rakam ke awaaj ke konchij matlab rahe hae.

Kuchh bhasa ke khaas sabd

English, Spanish, German, French and Russian ke kuchh khaas sabd.

HelloHolaHallo/Guten TagBonjourPrivet/Zdravstvuyte
GoodbyeAdios / ChaoTschüs / Auf WiedersehenAu revoirDo svidaniya
How are you?¿Cómo estás?Wie geht's?Ca va?Kak vashi dela?
GoodnightBuenas nochesGute NachtBonne nuitSpokoynoy nochi
Good afternoonBuenas tardesGuten AbendBonsoirDobry den'
Thank youGraciasDankeMerciSpasibo
Have a nice day!¡Que tengas un buen día!Schönen Tag (noch)!Bonne journee!Vsevo khoroshevo
See you later!¡Hasta luego!Bis später!A bientot!Uvidimsya
How do you feel?¿Cómo te sientes?Wie geht es dir?Comment sentir vous?Kak vy sebya chuvstvuyete?
How old are you?¿Cuántos años tienes?Wie alt bist du?Quel âge tu?Skol'ko vam let?
What is your name?¿Cómo te llamas?Wie heißt du?Comment t'appelles tu?Kak vas zavut?
What would you like to do?¿Qué te gusta hacer?Was willst du machen?Voudrais-vous que faire?Chem vy zanimayetes'?

Chirasmita Bhasa ke suchi

Jisme 60 million se jaada log baat kare hae/Top 20

LanguageFamilyEthnologue (2005 ke estimate)[1]Encarta ke estimate[2]Other estimatesRanking[3]
MandarinSino-Tibetan, Chinese873,014,2981,210,000,000†[2]982,000,000 native, 179,000,000 second language = 1,151,000,000 total[4]
Encarta ke estimate sa China ke dialect ke include kare hae
1 (1,041,507,149)
Hindi/UrduIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan366,000,000 Hindi,
60,503,579 Urdu[5]
366,000,000 Hindi,
60,290,000 Urdu
Standard Hindi 325,000,000; A total of 650,000,000 including Urdu (Pakistanke official bhasa ) aur jiske duusra bhasa hae, isme Maithili nai hae. Sab Hindi-Urdu dialect me baat kare waale ek duusre ke samajhe sake hae.2 (426,396,789)
EnglishIndo-European, Germanic, West Germanic, Anglo-Frisian, English328,008,138341,000,000Dunia bhar me 1,500,000,000 se jaada hoe sake hae.[6]3 (334,504,069)
SpanishIndo-European, Italic, Romance328,518,810322,200,000[7]Total of 417 million including second-language speakers (1999).[8][9]4 (325,359,405)
ArbiiAfro-Asiatic, Semitic206,000,000422,039,637

200 million ke matr bhasa aur 250 million non-native baat kare waala[10]Ii United Nations ke chhe official bhasa me se ek hae.[11]

5 (314,019,818)
BengaliIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan207,000,000207,000,000Chittagonian aur 10.3 million Sylheti bhi hae).6 (207,000,000)
PortugueseIndo-European, Italic, Romance177,457,180176,000,000210 million matr bhasa, 20 million duusra bhasa = 235 million total7 (176,728,590)
RussianIndo-European, Slavic, East145,031,551167,000,000165 million matr bhasa, 110 million duusra bhasa = 275 million total8 (156,015,775)
JapaneseLanguage isolate, Japonic122,433,899125,000,000130 million native, 2 million duusra bhasa = 132 million total9 (123,716,949)
GermanIndo-European, Germanic, West95,392,978100,130,000101 million matr bhasa (88 million Standard German, 5 million Swiss German, 8 million Austrian German), 60 million second language in EU[12] + 5–20 million worldwide.10 (97,761,489)
FrenchIndo-European, Italic, Romance77,000,000
128,000,000
including second
language speakers[13]
78,000,000128 million “native and real speakers" (includes 64,473,140 French people), 72 million "partiels", 250 million second language (worldwide including Africa and North Africa) = 450+ million (as a total of first and additional language spoken) and up to 600+ million total with significant knowledge (not necessarily fluent) of the language (2008). Not including partial speakers, French is the ninth most spoken language in the world when including second language speakers.[14][15][16][17]11 (77,500,000)
WuSino-Tibetan, Chinese77,200,00077 million native12 (77,100,000)
Koreanlanguage isolate, or Altaic(controversial)75,000,00078,000,00042,000,000 in South Korea (1986). Population total all countries 78,000,000 (1999 WA)13 (76,500,000)
JavaneseAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi75,500,00075,600,00070–75 million14 (75,500,550)
Yue Chinese/CantoneseSino-Tibetan, Chinese71,000,000--15 (71,000,000)
TeluguDravidian, South Central69,666,00069,666,00074,002,856[18]
84 million native, 5 million second language = 89 million total (2001)
16 (69,666,000)
MarathiIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan68,000,00068,000,000Indian census:71,936,894
68 million native, 3 million second language = 71 million total
17 (68,000,000)
VietnameseAustro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Vietic67,400,00068,000,00070 million native, perhaps up to 16 million second language, = ~86 million total18 (67,700,000)
TamilDravidian, Tamil Nadu ,Southern India, Srilanka, Singapore & Malaysia.66,000,00066,000,000Indian census:60,793,814
78 million [19]
19 (66,000,000)
ItalianIndo-European, Italic, Romance61,696,67762,000,00020 (61,848,338)

20 to 60 million native speakers

LanguageFamilyEthnologue (2005 estimate)[20]Encarta estimate[21]OtherRanking[3]
Turkish Altaic, Turkic, Oghuz59 million61,000,00021 (60 million)
PunjabiIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan56,000,00057,000,00061–62 million (2000 WCD) (taken together with Eastern Punjabi (28 million) and Siraiki (14 million): 104 million total)22
PersianIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian72 million[22]31.3 millionca. 72 million;[23] sometimes taken to include all of Southwestern Iranian (Luri, Tati, and other); ca. 72 million second language, February 2007, total ca. 144 million total23
MinSino-Tibetan, Chinese46.2 million--Southern Min: 49m, Northern Min 10.43m24
PolishIndo-European, Slavic, West42.7 million52 million--25(47.3 million)
GujaratiIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan46.1 million46.1 million--26
UkrainianIndo-European, Slavic, East39.4 million47 million--27 (43.2 million)
XiangSino-Tibetan, Chinese36.0 million28
MalayalamDravidian, Kerala, Southern - India35,706,00035,706,000Indian census:33,066,39229
KannadaDravidian, Southern35.4 million35.4 million38 million native, 9 million second language, = 64 million total30
MaithiliIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan45 million24,191,90031(34.6 million)
HakkaSino-Tibetan, Chinese34,000,000--32
BurmeseSino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese32,000,00032.3 million33
OriyaIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan31.7 million32.3 millionOriya is an official language of India and is spoken by over 35 million people all over the world. Indian Census:33,017,44634
AzerbaijaniAltaic, Turkic, Oghuz31 million31.4 million25–35 million native, including Qashqai (data for Iran uncertain); 8 million second language (outside Iran)35
SundaAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi27 million27 million36
BhojpuriIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan26 million26,254,00037
RomanianIndo-European, Italic, Romance26,000,00026,265,555Official in Moldova, Romania, Serbia (Vojvodina). Significant communities in Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Spain, Ukraine, USA.
26 million native,[2] 4 million second language. The total is about 30 million.[24]
38
HausaAfro-Asiatic, Chadic, West24,200,00024.2 million (2006)Official in Niger, north Nigeria. Significant communities in Chad, Benin, Ghana, Sudan
24 million native, ~15 million second language, = ~39 million total
39
MalayAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi, Malayic23,576,50023.6 million (2006)Official in Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore. Native to Malaysia, Indonesia, Thaeland. Significant communities in Australia, Bahrain.
18 million native, 3 million second language, = 21 million total (not counting Indonesian)
40
PashtoIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern19,000,00026,811,657Official in Afghanistan. Native to Pakistan. Significant communities in Iran, United Arab Emirates.41(22.9 million)
GanSino-Tibetan, Chinese21 million--48 million, 29 million in Jiangxi[25]42
Serbo-CroatianIndo-European, Slavic, South21,000,00021.1 million (2006)Official in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia, under names Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian respectively. Significant communities in Austria, Germany, Hungary, Macedonia, Romania, Slovenia.43
Indonesian
(also known as Bahasa Indonesian)
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian23.1 million17.1 millionnational language in Indonesia
over 140 million second language speakers per Ethnologue. Almost 100% of the abaadi of Indonesia speaks Bahasa Indonesia, a dialect of Malay.
44(20.1 million)
ThaeKradai, Tai20.05 million (1996)46.1 million (2006)Encarta includes Northern, Northeastern adn Southern Thae as well as Central whereas ethnologue Thae is just Central Thae
~31 million native (1983 SIL, 1990 Diller, 2000 WCD) (dated data), = ~60 million first and second language (2001 A. Diller). Includes Southern Thae, Northern Thae/Western Lao, but not Shan, Isan, or Lao.
45
DutchIndo-European, Germanic, West20,000,00020 million (2006)25 million[12][26] Official in Belgium, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Suriname. Significant communities in the United States, Canada, Australia, Indonesia and South Africa (excluding Afrikaans).46
YorubaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid20,000,00020 million (2006)Official in Nigeria.47

10 to 20 million native speakers

LanguageFamilyEthnologue (2005 estimate)[20]Encarta estimate[21]OtherRanking by Ethnologue estimate
SindhiIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan19,720,00019,720,000 (2006)Official in India, Pakistan. Significant communities in People’s Republic of China (Hong Kong), UK, Philipines Oman. 17 million native, 13 million second language, = 30 million total (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)48
UzbekAltaic, Turkic, Eastern18,466,00020.1 million (2006)Official in Uzbekistan. Native to Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan49
IgboNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid18 million18 millionOfficial in Nigeria
unknown number second language.
50
OromoAfro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East Cushiticsplit into different dialects in their consideration17.2 million (2006)National language of Ethiopia. Significant communities in Kenya
24 million native (31.6% of Ethiopia [1994 census]), ~2 million second language, = 26 million total (1998 census)
51
AmharicAfro-Asiatic, Semitic, South17,413,00017.4 million (2006)Official in Ethiopia. Significant communities in Israel.27 million native (32.7% Ethiopia [1994 census] and 2.7 million emigrants), 10% (7 million) as a second language = 34 million total52
TagalogAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-Philippines17,000,00017 million (2006)Official and Native in Philippines. Significant communities in Canada, People’s Republic of China (Hong Kong), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, United States (Alaska, California, Guam, Hawaii, Northern Mariana Islands).
22 million native (2000 census), ~65 million second language, = 85 million total
53
NepaliIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan16,056,00016,056,000Official in Nepal, India (Sikkim). Significant communities in Bhutan.approx. 30 million in Nepal, 16 million as native tongue and 15 million as a second language (2006)54
CebuanoAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-Philippines15 million15 million (2006)Native to Philippines
18.5 million native, ~11.5 million second language, = 30 million total (2000 census)
55
AssameseIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan15,334,00015,374,000Official in India (Assam). Significant communities in Bhutan and Bangladesh. Assamese is spoken and/or understood by most everyone in the state of Assam. Assam had a abaadi of 26.7 million in 2003-04. So, Assamese has another 8-10 million second language speakers. Assamese is also understood and spoken widely in Arunachal Pradesh with a abaadi of 1.1 million. These are mostly second or third language speakers. Various tribes in Nagaland with a abaadi 2 million use Nakhelse, a variant of Assamese, for communication. Thus, a total of approximately, 28-30 million people speak and understand Assamese.56
HungarianUralic, Finno-Ugric, Ugric14,500,00014.5 million (2006)Official in Hungary, Serbia (Vojvodina), Slovenia, Austria. Significant communities in Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, United States, Israel
14 million native (1995)
57
ZhuangKradai, Tai14 million14 millionOfficial in People's Republic of China (Guangxi)
14 million native (1992), unknown number second language
58
MadureseAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi13,694,00013,694,000Native to Indonesia (Originally Java, Madura)59
SinhaleseIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan13,220,00013.2 million (2006)Official in Sri Lanka. Significant communities in United Arab Emirates
13 million native, 2 million second language, = 15 million total (1993)
60
GreekIndo-European, Greek12 million12 millionOfficial in Cyprus, Greece. Significant communities in Albania, Australia, Canada, Egypt, France, Georgia, Germany, Italy, Russia, South Africa, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, USA.
12 million (2004), up to 10–12 million more second language
61
CzechIndo-European, Slavic, West12 million (2006)12 million (1990 WA).Official in Czech Republic.62
Fula/FulfuldeNiger-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian~13 million (all varieties)11,428,700Official in Niger, Nigeria. National language in Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal. Significant communities in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Sierra Leone.63
ShonaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu7,000,00014 millionNational language of Zimbabwe. Significant communities in Botswana, Mozambique.
15 million native, 1.8 million second language, = 16–17 million total, including Ndau, Manyika (2000 A. Chebanne)
64(10.5 million)
MalagasyAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-Philippines, Barito9,398,70010.5 million (2006)Official in Madagascar. Significant communities in Mayotte.
17 million
65(10 million)

2 to 10 million native speakers

LanguageFamilyOfficial status and where spoken natively by more than 1% of the abaadiSIL estimate[27]Number of speakersRanking by number of native speakers
SomaliAfro-Asiatic, Cushitic, EastOfficial in Somalia. Native to Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya. Significant communities in Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Yemen.10-16 million native and at least 500,000 second-language speakers.million (2004 WCD)9.8 million (2006)66
ZuluNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuOfficial in South Africa. Significant communities in Lesotho, Swaziland9.6 million (2006)9.6 million native, ~16 million second language, = ~25 million total (1996 census)67
QuechuaQuechuanOfficial in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru. Significant communities in Argentina8.3 million (2006)10.4 million, all varieties68
KazakhAltaic, Turkic, Northwestern, SouthernOfficial in Kazakhstan. Significant communities in People's Republic of China (Xinjiang), Russia, Mongolia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan8.2 million (2006)12 million69
TibetanSino-Tibetan, Northwestern, SouthernOfficial in People's Republic of China (Tibet Autonomous Region and part of Qinghae, Sichuan, Gansu). Significant communities in India7.1 million (2006)7.6 million70
KurdishIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern37,000,000Official in Iraq. Native to Armenia, Iran, Syria, Turkey. Significant communities in Germany, Lebanon.71
TajikIndo-European, Indo-IranianOfficial in Tajikistan. Significant communities in Uzbekistan4.4 million.7.9-17 million native (estimates vary due to lack of official data, moreover these exclude Tajiks of Afghanistan)72
Chichewa (Nyanja)Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuOfficial in Malawi, Zambia. Significant communities in Mozambique, Zimbabwe.9.3 million native (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk), 0.4 million second language (1999 WA), = 9.7 million total73
Haitian CreoleIndo-European, Romance, CreoleOfficial in Haiti. Significant communities in Bahamas, Canada (Quebec), Cuba, Cayman Islands (UK), Dominican Republic, France (Guadeloupe), United States (Connecticut, Florida, New Jersey, Massachusetts, New York).7.4 million (2006)12 million (2005)74
BelarusianIndo-European, Slavic, EastOfficial in Belarus. Significant communities in Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Poland, Russia10.2 million (2006)9.1 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)75
LombardIndo-European, RomanceNative to Italy--5 million Western Lombard + 3 million Eastern Lombard + others = 9.13 million (Ethnologue 2006)76
HebrewAfro-Asiatic, Semitic, North CentralOfficial in Israel. Significant communities in USA (New York, California) and Gibraltar.9.42 million (2006)~up to 10.0 million speakers including 2nd language speakers77
SwedishIndo-European, Germanic, NorthNational language of Sweden. National language in Finland.9 million (2006)8.8 million (1986), ~9 million (2005)78
KongoNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuNational language in Angola, Congo-Brazzaville (Kituba), Congo-Kinshasa.4.7 million (2006)8.7 million, all varieties, including Yombe and creolized Kituba (1986–2002) (dated data)79
AkanNiger-Congo, KwaNational language in Ghana7 million (2006)8.3 million native, ~1 million second language, = ~10 million total (2004 SIL)80
TshilubaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuNational language of Congo-Kinshasa7.8 million native, 0.7 million second language, = 8.5 million total (1991 UBS). Includes 1.5 million Kiluba.81
IlokanoAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-PhilippinesPhilippines. Significant communities in United States (Hawaii).8 million (2006)7.7 million native (2000 census), ~2.3 second language = 10 million total82
UyghurAltaic, Turkic, Southeastern, EasternOfficial in People's Republic of China (Xinjiang). Significant communities in Kazakhstan7.6 million (2006)7.6 million83
NeapolitanIndo-European, Romance Native to Italy--7.5 million native84
BulgarianIndo-European, Slavic, SouthOfficial in Bulgaria. Significant communities in Moldova, Ukraine, the Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, USA9 million (2006)7.7 million in Bulgaria (2005) and ~1 million abroad = 8.5 million native85
KinyarwandaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuOfficial in Rwanda. Significant communities in Congo-Kinshasa, Uganda7.3 million (1998)86
KhmerAustro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Khmer7,039,2008 million (2006)Official in Cambodia. Significant communities in Thaeland, United States (California), Vietnam
14 million native, 1 million second language, = 15 million total (2004)
87
XhosaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuOfficial in South Africa. Significant communities in Lesotho6.9 million (2006)7.2 million (1996 census)88
BalochiIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, IranianNative to Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan. Significant communities in Oman, United Arab Emirates7 million (2006)7.0 million (1998)89
HiligaynonAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-PhilippinesPhilippines7 million (2006)6.9 million (2000 census), est. 4.1 million second language = ~11 million total90
TigrinyaAfro-Asiatic, Semitic, SouthOfficial in Eritrea, Ethiopia5.1 million (2006)4.5 million in Ethiopia (6% of abaadi (1994 census)), ~2.25 million in Eritrea (50% of abaadi (CIA)), = 6.75 million native, 146,934 as second language (1994 census), = 6.9 million total91
CatalanIndo-European, RomanceOfficial and Native to Andorra, Spain (Balearic Islands, Catalonia, Valencia, Aragon (La Franja)), France (Pyrénées-Orientales), Italy (Alghero).6.6 million (2006)6.7 million native, ~5 million second language, = ~12 million total (1996) (includes Valencian)92
MinangkabauAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi, MalayicIndonesia (Sumatra)6.5 million (2006)6.5 million (1981 Moussay) (dated data)93
TurkmenAltaic, Turkic, Southwestern, EasternOfficial in Turkmenistan. Significant communities in Afghanistan, Iran.6.4 million (2006)6.4 million (1995)94
MakhuwaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuMajor language of Mozambique. Significant communities in Tanzania2.5 million (2006)6.4 million, all varieties, including Lomwe95
SantaliAustro-Asiatic, MundaOfficial in India6.2 million (2006)6.2 million (1997)96
AlbanianIndo-European, isolateOfficial in Albania, Macedonia, Kosovo . Significant communities in Greece, Italy.6.0 million3.6 million (data from Albania)97
ArmenianIndo-European, isolateOfficial in Armenia. Significant communities in Russia, USA, Georgia, Iran, Lebanon, Syria, France.6 million (2006)6.7 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk, etc.)98
AfrikaansIndo-European, Germanic, West Germanic Official in South Africa. Significant communities in Namibia,Botswana, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and United Kingdom.6.0 million (2006)6.0 million native, 10.3 million second language, = 16 million total (1996 census)99
MongolianAltaic, MongolianOfficial in People's Republic of China (Inner Mongolia), Mongolia5.7 million (2006)5.7 million100
BhiliIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-AryanIndia1.3 million (2006)5.6 million, all varieties (1994). Includes 1.6 million Wagdi, etc.101
DanishIndo-European, Germanic, NorthOfficial in Denmark, Faroe Islands (Denmark). Significant communities in Germany (Southern Schleswig) and Greenland.5.3 million (2006)5.6 million (2006?)102
FinnishUralic, Finno-Ugric, FinnicOfficial in Finland. Significant communities in Sweden and Estonia.6.1 million (2006)5.4 million (1993)103
TatarAltaic, Turkic, Northwestern, NorthernOfficial in Russia (Tatarstan). Significant communities in Bashkortostan, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan5.7 million (1989 USSR census)[28][29], at least 5.34 million (2002 census: ethnic Tatars in Russia only)[30]104
GikuyuNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuMajor language of Kenya5.4 million (2006)5.3 million (1994 I. Larsen BTL)105
SlovakIndo-European, Slavic, WestOfficial in Slovakia and Vojvodina district of Serbia.5.6 million (2006)5.0 million (1990 WA)106
MoreNiger-Congo, GurNational language of Burkina Faso5.1 million (2006)~5 million (1991)107
GuaraniTupiOfficial in Paraguay. Significant communities in Argentina.5.1 million (2006)4.9 million (1995)108
SwahiliNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuOfficial in Congo-Kinshasa, Kenya, Tanzania. Significant communities in Comoros, Mayotte, Oman5 million (2006)~5 million native, ~80 million second language109
Southern QuechuaQuechuanOfficial in Peru, Bolivia~5,000,000110
LanguageFamilyOfficial status and where spoken natively by more than 1% of the abaadiSIL estimate[27]Number of speakersRanking by number of native speakers
KirundiNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuOfficial in Burundi.4.9 million (1986) (dated data)111
Sesotho (southern)Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuOfficial in Lesotho, South Africa.4.9 million (1996 census)112
Central Morocco Tamazight (Berber)Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern3,500,000National language in Algeria, Mali and Niger (Tuaregs); unrecognized in Morocco, Libya and Tunisia. Large migrant communities in France, Benelux, Spain and Germany .32.3 million (2006)37+ million (1998)113
RomaniIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-AryanSignificant communities in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Iran, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Turkey3.1 million (2006)4.8 million, all varieties, including Domari (data for Vlax 2002–2004; for Domari 2000 WCD).114
NorwegianIndo-European, Germanic, NorthOfficial in Norway.5 million (2006)4.7 million (2006, Statistics Norway)115
Pahari-PotwariIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-AryanPakistan: Areas of Pakistani administered Kashmir e.g. Mirpur District, Rawalpindi. Dialects include Pahari (Dhundi-Kairali), Pothwari (Potwari), Chibhali, Pindiwali, Punchhi (Poonchi), and Mirpuri.[31] (Mirpuri can also refer to Mirpur Punjabi, a Lahnda language. Pahari-Potwari is related to Punjabi.4.7 million, all varieties116
TibetanSino-Tibetan,Tibeto-Burman, BodicOfficial in People's Republic of China (Tibet, Qinghae, parts of Sichuan, Gansu)1.3 million (2006)4.6 million, all varieties117
KanuriNilo-Saharan, SaharanOfficial in Niger, Nigeria. Significant communities in Chad (Kanembu)4.4 million native, 0.5 million second language, = 4.9 million total (data mostly from 1985) (dated data)118
KashmiriIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-AryanOfficial in and native to India.4.5 million (2006)4.6 million (1997)119
BikolAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-PhilippinesPhilippines3.3 million (2006)4.5 native, all varieties (2000 census), unknown number second language120
YiSino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, BurmicPeople's Republic of China4.2 million (2006)7.8 million ethnic Yi (2000 census)121
GeorgianKartvelianOfficial in Georgia. Significant communities in Israel.4.1 million (2006)4.2 million (1993 UBS)122
Qusqu-QullawQuechuanOfficial in Peru (Cusco and Puno departments) Also spoken in Bolivia, Argentina4 million123
TswanaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuOfficial in Botswana, South Africa. National language of Namibia4 million (2006)4.4 million native, 200,000 second language, = 4.6 million total (1993 Johnstone) (dated data)124
UmbunduNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuNational language of Angola~4 million native, unknown number second language (1995 WA)125
KonkaniIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-AryanOfficial in India (Goa).Significant communities in Uttara Kannada,Dakshina Kannada.6 million (2006)~4 million (1999 WA)126
BalineseAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi, Bali-SasakIndonesia (Bali, Lombok)3.8 million (2006)3.9 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)127
Northern Sotho (sePedi)Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuOfficial in South Africa. Significant communities in Botswana3.7 million (1996 census)128
LuyiaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuKenya3.6 million (2006)3.6 million (1989 census) (dated data)129
WolofNiger-Congo, AtlanticNational language in Mauritania, Senegal. Significant communities in The Gambia.3.4 million (2006)3.6 million native (2002), unknown number second language130
BugineseAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi, South SulawesiIndonesia3.5 million native, 0.5 million second language, = ~4 million total (1991 SIL)131
Luo (Dholuo)Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, NiloticKenya3.4 million (2006)3.5 million (1994 I. Larsen BTL) (dated data)132
ManinkaNiger-Congo, MandeNational language of Guinea, Mali. Significant numbers in Liberia, Senegal, Sierra Leone.2.5 million (2006)3.3 million, all varieties133
MazanderaniIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, WesternIran3.3 million (2006)3.3 million (1993) (dated data) (numbers may be confused with or include Gilaki)134
GilakiIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, WesternIran3.3 million (2006)3.3 million (1993) (dated data) (numbers may be confused with or include Mazanderani)135
ShanKradai, TaiMyanmar3 million (2006)3.3 million136
TsongaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuOfficial in South Africa. Significant communities in Mozambique, Swaziland.3.2 million (2006)3.3 million (1989, 1996) (dated data)137
GalicianIndo-European, Romance. Official in Galicia, Spain.3.2 million (2006)3.2 million (1986) (data dated)138
LaoKradai, TaiOfficial in Laos. Native to Thaeland.3.2 million (2006)~19 million Lao-Phutai dialects (including Isan) (data dated)139
SukumaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuTanzania5 million (2006)3.2 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)140
YiddishIndo-European, Germanic, Westofficial in Russia (Jewish Autonomous Oblast) Significant communities in Belarus, Israel, Latvia, Ukraine, USA.3 million (2006)3.2 million141
Jamaican CreoleIndo-European, Germanic, West, CreoleJamaica. Significant communities in Panama, Costa Rica2.8 million (2006)3.2 million (2001)142
PiemonteisIndo-European, Italic, NorthItaly (official in the Piedmont region), Argentina3.1 million (2000)3.1 million (2000), might not include speakers in Latin America143
KyrgyzAltaic, Turkic, Northwestern, SouthernOfficial in Kyrgyzstan. Native to Tajikistan3.1 million (2006)3.1 million (1993 UBS) (dated data)144
Waray-WarayAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-PhilippinesPhilippines2.4 million3.1 native (2000 census), unknown number second language145
EweNiger-Congo, KwaOfficial in Togo. National language of Ghana.2.5 million (2006)3.1 million native, 500,000 second language, = 3.6 million total (2003)146
South Bolivian QuechuaQuechuanOfficial in Bolivia, also spoken in Argentina3,637,500 (ethnologue)sout147
LithuanianIndo-European, BalticOfficial in Lithuania. Significant communities in Latvia.4 million (2006)3.1 million (1998)148
LugandaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuMajor language of Uganda3.0 million native (1991 census), ~1 million second language (1999 WA), = ~4 million total149
LusogaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuMajor language of Uganda, official status unclear/pending+/- 3 million native speakers (2002 census), +/- 100,000 second-language speakers (dated data)150
AcehneseAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi, MalayicIndonesia3 million (2006)~3 million (1999 WA)151
KimbunduNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuNational language of Angola~3 million (1999 WA)152
HindkoIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-AryanPakistan2.5 million (2006)~3 million (1993) (dated data)153
Ibibio-EfikNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross RiverEfik official in Nigeria1.5 million (2006)~3 million, including Anaang (1990; 1998 B. Connell) (dated data)154
LanguageFamilyOfficial status and where spoken natively, or as an immigrant language, by more than 1% of the abaadiNumber of speakersRanking by number of native speakers
RajbangsiIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-AryanIndia3.0 million (1991 census)155
GarhwaliIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-AryanIndia2.9 million (2000)156
BambaraNiger-Congo, MandeNational language of Mali2.8 million native, 10 million second language, = 13 million total157
HmongHmong-MienChina. Significant communities in France (French Guiana), Laos, United States (Minnesota, Wisconsin), Vietnam2.8 million (2006)
~4 million (Lemoine, 2005)
158
OmetoAfro-Asiatic, OmoticEthiopia2.8 million, all varieties, including Welayta (1998 census)159
Indian Sign LanguageLanguage isolate (Sign language)Bangladesh, India, Pakistan2.7 million in India, plus unknown number in Bangladesh, Pakistan (2003). Same language as Pakistani Sign Language160
Betawi creoleAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi, CreoleIndonesia2.7 million (1993 Johnstone)161
KarenSino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, KarenicMyanmar, Thaeland, India2.6 million, all varieties (dated data)162
GondiDravidianIndia2.6 million (1997)163
SenoufoNiger-Congo, GurNational language of Mali. Native to Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire.2.6 million, all varieties (1991, 1993, 2001)164
KalenjinNilo-Saharan, East Sudanic, NiloticKenya2.5 million (1989 census)165
KumauniIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-AryanIndia2.4 million in India (1998)166
KambaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuKenya2.4 million native, 600,000 second language, = 3.0 million total (1989 census)167
LuriIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, WesternIran2.4 million (1999, 2001)168
K'iche'MayanGuatemala2.3 million (2000 SIL)169
KapampanganAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-PhilippinesPhilippines2.3 million (2000 census)170
BembaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuNational language of Zambia2.2 million (2006)
3.6 million native, unknown number second language (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)
171
Central AymaraAymaranOfficial in Bolivia, Peru. Significant numbers in Argentina.2.2 million Central Aymara (1987)172
TivNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantoidNigeria2.2 million native, unknown number second language (1991 UBS)173
BrahuiDravidianPakistan, Afghanistan2.2 million174
GbayaNiger-Congo, UbangianCentral African Republic, Congo-Kinshasa2.2 million, all varieties, including Ngbaka (2000 WCD)175
ZarmaNilo-Saharan, SonghaeOfficial in Niger2.2 million (1998)176
BaouléNiger-Congo, KwaCôte d'Ivoire2.1 million (1993 SIL)177
DogriIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-AryanOfficial in India (Jammu and Kashmir states)2.1 million (1997)178
LingalaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuNational language of Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa.2.1 million native (2000 WCD), 7 million second language in Congo-Kinshasa (1999 WA), unknown additional second-language speakers in Congo-Brazzaville, = 9+ million total. According to Britannica (2005 Yearbook) more than 36 million people speak Lingala as lingua franca.179
SasakAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-SulawesiIndonesia2.1 million (1989)180
KuruxDravidianIndia, Nepal2.1 million (1997)181
MundariAustro-Asiatic, MundaIndia2.1 million (1997)182
DinkaNilo-Saharan, East Sudanic, NiloticSouthern Sudan2+ million183
SloveneIndo-European, Slavic, South SlavicOfficial in Austria, Hungary, Italy, Slovenia.2.0 million (1991 census) plus minorities in Austria, Croatia, Hungary and Italy; several hundred thousand (100 000 - 200 000) in US, Canada and Australia184
BatakAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi, Northern SumatraIndonesia2 million (2006)
~6.2 million, all varieties (c. 1991 UBS) (dated data). Includes Toba, Dairi, Simalungun, etc.
185
MacedonianIndo-European, Slavic, SouthOfficial in Republic of Macedonia , also sizeable communities in Greece, Bulgaria and Albania2.0 million (1995) [2]186
BuyeiKradai, TaiChina~2 million (1990 census)187
Beti-PahuinNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuMajor language of Gabon, Equatorial Guinea. Significant communities in Cameroon, São Tomé and Príncipe.~2 million. Includes Fang, Ewondo, etc.188

1 to 2 million native speakers

LanguageFamilyOfficial status and where spoken natively by more than 1% of the abaadiSIL estimate[27]Ranking by number of native speakers
ZazakiIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, WesternTurkey1.5–2.5 million (all dialects) (1998 Paul)189
OccitanIndo-European, RomanceFrance, Italy, Spain, Monaco1,939,000190
TuluDravidianIndia1.9 million (1997)191
LigurianIndo-European, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-ItalicItaly, France, Monaco1,920,848192
SidamoAfro-Asiatic, Cushitic, EastEthiopia1.9 million native, 100,000 second language, = 2.0 million total (1998 census)193
BashkirAltaic, Turkic, Northwestern, NorthernOfficial in Russia (Bashkortostan)1.9 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)194
YaoNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuMalawi, Tanzania, Mozambique~1.9 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)195
ChuvashAltaic, TurkicOfficial in Russia (Chuvashia)1.8 million native, 200,000 second language, = 2.0 million total (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)196
Ijaw (Izon)Niger-Congo, Ijoid languagesIndigenous in Nigeria1.8 million (all varieties) (Izon 1 million)197
FonNiger-Congo, KwaNational language of Benin Significant communities in Togo1.7 million native (2000 Hoddenbagh), unknown number second language198
SiSwatiNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuOfficial in South Africa, Swaziland. Significant communities in Lesotho1.7 million (1996 census, 1993 Johnstone)199
IrishIndo-European, Celtic, GoidelicOfficial in the Republic of Ireland; Northern Ireland, Small communities in USA, Canada and Australia1,656,790 (2006 Irish Census) [3]200
LatvianIndo-European, BalticOfficial in Latvia. Significant communities in Australia, USA, United Kingdom, Ireland, Brazil.1.6 million[32]201
NyankoreNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuUganda1.6 million (1991 census)202
MakasarAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-SulawesiIndonesia1.6 million native, 400,000 second language, = 2 million total (1989)203
GusiiNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuKenya1.6 million (1994 I. Larsen BTL)204
KhandeshiIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-AryanIndia1.6 million (1997)205
NdebeleNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuOfficial in South Africa. National language of Zimbabwe.1.6 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)206
ChinSino-Tibetan, Tibeto-BurmanMyanmar, India1.6 million (1990 BAP, 1996 UBS). All varieties, but not including Mizo etc.207
LimburgishIndo-European, Germanic, West Germanic, Meuse-RhenishOfficial in Netherlands (as a regional language). Belgium and Germany (no official status)1.6 million208
Vlax RomaniIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-AryanBosnia and Herzegovina, Romania, Albania, Colombia, Hungary1.5 million209
SaraNilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, Bongo-BagirmiNational language of Chad. Significant communities in Central African Republic.1.5 million native, all varieties, large number second-language speakers (dated data)210
PangasinanAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-PhilippinesPhilippines1.5 million (2000 census)211
TongaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuZambia, Zimbabwe1.5 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)212
LampungAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-SulawesiIndonesia~1.5 million (1981 Wurm and Hattori)213
SardinianIndo-European, RomanceOfficial in Italy (Sardinia)~1.5 million (1977 M. Ibba, Rutgers University)214
ScotsIndo-European, Germanic, WestScotland, Significant communities in Northern Ireland~1.5 million native (General Register Office for Scotland, 1996)215
DongKradai, Kam-SuiChina1.5 million216
MendeNiger-Congo, MandeNational language of Sierra Leone1.5 million native, unknown number second language (1987 UBS)217
TàyKradai, Kam-Tai, TaiVietnam1.5 million in Viet Nam (1999 census)218
NahuatlUto-Aztecan, isolateMexico1.4 million (all varieties) (dated data)219
AfarAfro-Asiatic, Cushitic, EastEthiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti1.4 million (1998 census)220
DagbaniNiger-Congo, GurNational language of Ghana1.4 million, including Kusaal, Mampruli (2004 SIL)221
KoliIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-AryanIndia, Pakistan1.4 million, all varieties (some data dated)222
ChigaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuUganda1.4 million (1991 census)223
ChechenCaucasic, NakhOfficial in Russia (Chechnya).1.33 million (2002 census)224
TumbukaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuOfficial in Malawi. Significant communities in Zambia1.3 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)225
Iu MienHmong-Mien, YaoChina1.3 million, all varieties (1995 Wang and Mao)226
MeruNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuKenya1.3 million (1994 I. Larsen BTL) (dated data)227
GogoNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuTanzania~1.3 million (1992 UBS) (dated data)228
TesoNilo-Saharan, East Sudanic, NiloticUganda. Significant communities in Kenya1.3 million (1991 census)229
MeitheiSino-Tibetan, Tibeto-BurmanOfficial in India (Manipur)1.3 million (1997)230
TamangSino-Tibetan, Tibeto-BurmanNepal1.3 million231
MakondeNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuTanzania, Mozambique1.3 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)232
BaiSino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, unclassifiedChina1.2 million (2003)233
TuaregAfro-Asiatic, Berber, SouthernOfficial in Niger. National language of Mali.1.2 million (1991–1998)234
MandinkaNiger-Congo, MandeNational language of Senegal. Significant communities in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau.1.2 million (2002)235
JulaNiger-Congo, MandeNative to Burkina Faso, Significant communities in Côte d'Ivoire~1.2 million native, 3–4 million second language236
TemneNiger-Congo, AtlanticNational language of Sierra Leone~1.2 million native, 200,000 second language, = ~1.4 million total (1989 J. Kaiser)237
HayaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuTanzania~1.2 million (1991 UBS)238
SererNiger-Congo, AtlanticNational language of Senegal. Significant communities in Gambia.1.2 million (2002)239
BejaAfro-Asiatic, Cushitic or isolateSudan, Eritrea1.2 million (1982 SIL)240
NyamweziNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuTanzania1.2 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)241
AbronNiger-Congo, KwaGhana1.2 million (2003)242
AlurNilo-Saharan, East Sudanic, NiloticCongo-Kinshasa, Uganda1.2 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)243
SenaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuMozambique, Malawi1.2 million, all varieties244
AzandeNiger-Congo, UbangianCongo-Kinshasa, Southern Sudan, Central African Republic1.1 million (dated data)245
WalloonIndo-European, RomanceBelgium1.1 million (1998)246
AnyiNiger-Congo, KwaCôte d'Ivoire, Ghana1.2 million (1993 SIL)247
MalviIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-AryanIndia1.1 million (1997)248
Kinaray-aAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-PhilippinesPhilippines1.1 million native (2000 census)249
SoninkeNiger-Congo, MandeNational language in Mali, Mauritania, Senegal. Significant communities in Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia.1.10 million (1991)250
HoAustro-Asiatic, MundaIndia1.08 million (1997)251
EstonianUralic, Finno-Ugric, FinnicOfficial in Estonia1.08 million (1989 census)252
NyakyusaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuTanzania, Malawi1.05 million (1992 UBS)253
GwariNiger-Congo, NupeNigeria1.05 million (1991 SIL, 2002 SIL)254
LugbaraNilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, Moru-MadiCongo-Kinshasa, Uganda1.04 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk, 1983 SIL)255
BasqueLanguage isolate, Euskadi and Navarre (Spain) and Iparralde (France)Basque Country1.03 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk, 1983 SIL)256
NagaSino-Tibetan, Tibeto-BurmanIndia1.03 million, all varieties (1997)257
SusuNiger-Congo, MandeNational language of Guinea. Significant communities in Sierra Leone.1.03 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)258
TausugAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-PhilippinePhilippines Significant communities in Indonesia (Kalimantan), Malaysia (Sabah)1.02 million native (2000 census)259
ChokweNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuNational language of Angola. Significant communities in Congo-Kinshasa1.01 million (1990 UBS)260
KabardianCaucasic, CircassianOfficial in Russia (Kabardino-Balkaria). Significant communities in Karachay-Cherkessia, Turkey1.01 million (1993 UBS, 2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)261
RyūkyūJaponic, RyūkyūanJapan1.01 million, all varieties (2000 WCD)262
MagindanawAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-PhilippinePhilippines1.0 million native (2000 census), unknown number second language263
MaranaoAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-PhilippinePhilippines1.0 million native (2000 census)264
Ancash QuechuaWaywashOfficial in Peru1.0 million speakers265
WelshIndo-European, Celtic, BrythonicOfficial in Wales Also spoken by isolated abaadis in Argentina and England and United States.1.0 million speakers266
SongeNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuCongo-Kinshasa~1 million (1991 WA)267
RejangAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-SulawesiIndonesia~1 million (1981 Wurm and Hattori)268
BiniNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, EdoidOfficial in Nigeria~1 million (1999 WA)269
EbiraNiger-Congo, NupeNigeria~1 million (1989 J. Adive)270
DagaareNiger-Congo, GurNational language of Ghana. Significant communities in Burkina Faso.~1 million (2003)271
GujariIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-AryanAfghanistan, India, Pakistan0.99 million (2000 WCD)272
TharuIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-AryanNepal0.99 million, all varieties273
VendaNiger-Congo, Benue-Congo, BantuOfficial in South Africa0.96 million (1996 census)274
ArakaneseSino-Tibetan, Tibeto-BurmanMyanmar, Bangladesh0.95 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)275

100,000 to 1 million speakers

LanguageFamilyOfficial status and where spoken natively by more than 1% of the abaadiNumber of speakers
Yucatán MayaMayan, Yucatecan, Yucatec-LacaMexico, Belize705,000
OsseticIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, NortheasternSpoken in Russia Official in North Ossetia, South Ossetia), Georgia, Turkey~700,000
NdongaBantuSpoken in Namibia, Angola690,000
KwanyamaNiger-CongoAngola, Namibia671,000
MariUralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Permic, Finno-VolgaicRussia (Official in Mari El)600,569
West FrisianIndo-European, Germanic, West Germanic, Anglo-Frisian, FrisianOfficial in Netherlands (Friesland).600,000 fluent speakers in 2004
700,000 (Ethnologue 1976)
AvarNorth Caucasian (disputed), Northeast Caucasian, Avar-AndicOfficial in Russia's Republic of Dagestan Also spoken in the rest of Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkey~600,000
FriulianIndo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-RhaetianItaly~600,000
LoziNiger-CongoNamibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe550,000
UdmurtUralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Permic, PermicRussia (Official in Udmurtia), Kazakhstan550,000
KalmykAltaic (controversial), Mongolic, Kalmyk-OiratSpoken in Russia (Kalmykia), China, Mongolia518,500
American Sign LanguageSign LanguageNo official status, used in USA, Canada and Guatemala. Also used in varying degrees in Philippines, Singapore, Hong Kong, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Chad, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Mauritania, Kenya, Madagascar and Zimbabwe.100,000 to 500,000 in the USA [4]
BretonIndo-European, Celtic, BrythonicNative in Brittany, no official status≤ 500,000
ErzyaUralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-permic, Finno-Volgaic, MordvinicSpoken in Russia~500,000
MalteseAfro-Asiatic, Semitic, South CentralOfficial in Malta, European Union. Significant communities in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and Gibraltar~500,000
MokshaUralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-permic, Finno-Volgaic, MordvinicRussia (Mordovia)~500,000
ZapotecOto-Manguean, ZapotecanMexico (Oaxaca, Puebla Guerrero) Also spoken in USA~500,000
Fiji HindiIndo-EuropeanFiji, Australia, New Zealand, USA, Canada460,000
FijianMalayo-PolynesianFiji, Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Other Pacific Islands455,000
LezgianNortheast Caucasian, LezgicSpoken in Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan450,000
Hakha-ChinSino-TibetanBurma, India, Bangladesh446-264
LimbuSino-Tibetanofficial in Nepal, India (Sikkim), significant communities in Bhutan, Assam (India)441,633
Mapudungunlanguage isolateSignificant communities in Chile, Argentina440,000 (ethnologue)
DarginCaucasian (geographical convention), North (disputed), NortheastSpoken in Dagestan, Russia439,000
IngushCaucasian (disputed), North (disputed), Northeast, Nakh, Veinakh (Chechen-Ingush)Spoken in Russia (Ingushetia, Chechnya)415,000
Eastern Huasteca NahuatlUto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, HuastecaMexico410,000
Karachay-BalkarAltaic, Turkic, Kypchak, Kypchak-CumanOfficial languages of Russian areas of Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia400,000
BuryatAltaic, Mongolic, NorthernMongolia, China, Russia400,000
Western Huasteca NahuatlUto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, HuastecaMexico400,000
CorsicanIndo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-DalmatianNative in Corsica.100,000-402,000
AklanonAustronesian, Borneo-Philippines, Central Philippine, Visayan, Western Visayan, Aklan,Native in the Philippines. 394,545
Dhivehi / MahlIndo-AryanOfficial inThe Maldives, Minicoy Island(India).379,200
SamoanAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian (MP), Nuclear MPOfficial in Samoa and American Samoa (United States)370,337
SakhaAltaic, Turkic, Northern TurkicRussia363,000
AwngiAfro Asiatic, Cushitic, CentralEthiopica (Agew Awi Zone, Amhara Region)356,980
IrishGaelic, Celtic, GoidelicOfficial in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, spoken by communities in the United States, Canada and Australia.350,000
KomiUralic, PermicSpoken in Russia (Komi Republic, Perm Krai350,000
MazahuaOto-Manguean, Otopamean, OtomianMexico350,000
PapiamentoPortuguese CreoleOfficial in Netherlands Antilles and Aruba329,000
Pontic GreekIndo-European, GreekGreece, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Turkey324,535
Japanese Sign LanguageSign Languageno official status320,000 signers
IcelandicIndo-European, Germanic, NorthOfficial in Iceland. Small community in Gimli, Manitoba, Canada.310,000
WayuuArawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, CaribbeanSignificant communities in Colombia, Venezuela305,000 (ethnologue)
AromanianIndo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern RomanceGreece, Albania, Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria, Macedonia300,000-700,000
AdygheCaucasian (disputed), North Caucasian (disputed), Northwest Caucasian, CircassianOfficial in Russia's Republic of Adygea, Significant communities in the rest of Russia, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Israel, Macedonia, Iraq300,000
LazSouth CaucasianTurkey, Georgia, Germany, Adjaria, Greece300,000-500,000
Wanka QuechuaQuechuanOfficial in Peru300,000
LuxembourgishWest Central German group of High German languagesOfficial in Luxembourg300,000
French Sign LanguageSign Languagespoken in France, no official status. French Sign Language is related to Dutch Sign Language (NGT), German Sign Language (DGS), Flemish Sign Language (VGT), Belgian-French Sign Language (LSFB) Irish Sign Language (ISL), American Sign Language (ASL), and Quebec Sign Language (LSQ).80,000 - 300,000 signers
KumykAltaic, Turkic, Kypchak, Kypchak-CumanRussia Dagestan282,000
NàmáKhoisan, Khoe, Khoekhoe, North KhoekhoeOfficial in Namibia. 250,000
Central Huasteca NahuatlUto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, AztecMexico200,000
Kenyan Sign LanguageSign LanguageKenya~200,000
TuvanAltaic, Turkic, NortheasternMongolia, Russia, China200,000
MiskitoMisumalpanNicaragua, Honduras183,400
NavajoNa-Dené, Athabaskan, Southern AthabaskanSpoken in the USA (Arizona, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico)178,000
MaoriAustronesian, Oceanic, Tahitic languagesOfficial language of New Zealand/Aotearoa165,000 fluent speakers (New Zealand Census, 2006. Statistics New Zealand).
AmisAustronesianTaiwan137,651
NgäbereChibchan, GuaymiSpoken in Panamá133,092 (1990 Panama Census)
HererroNiger-CongoNamibia, Botswana130,000
Chamula TzotzilMayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, TzeltalanMexico130,000
Abkhaz(North Caucasian, linked closely to Indo-European, or possibly related to Hattic) (all disputed)), Northwest Caucasian, Abkhaz-AbazaGeorgia, Abkhazia, diasporal communities elsewhereabout 125000
Highland Puebla NahuatlUto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, AztecMexico125,000
Highland TotonacTotonacan, TotonacMexico120,000
LakNorth Caucasian, Northeast CaucasianRussia (Southern Dagestan)120,000
Orizaba NahuatlUto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, AztecMexico120,000
P'urhépechaLanguage isolateMexico Michoacán~120,000
TahitianAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian (MP), Central-Eastern MP, Eastern MP, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear Polynesian, Eastern Polynesian, Central E. Polynesian, TahiticFrance (French Polynesia)120,000
KarelianUralicRussia118,000
Komi-PermyakUralicRussia116,000
PardhanGondiNo official status, spoken in India116,919
Franco-ProvençalIndo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian (SIL), Oïl (SIL), SoutheasternTemplate:Dn (SIL)Italy, Switzerland, France~113,000
TonganAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Eastern Malayo-Polynesian...Official in Tonga105,319
Bachajón TzeltalMayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, TzeltalanMexico100,000
LadinoIndo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, SpanishIsrael, Turkey109,000
GilberteseAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Eastern, Eastern...Official in Kiribati102,000
Spanish Sign LanguageSign LanguageSpainmore than 100,000 signers
Mezquital OtomiOto-Manguean, Otopamean, OtomianMexico, USA100,000
TabasaranNortheast Caucasian, LezgianRussia (Southern Dagestan)95,905
Mexican Sign LanguageSign Languageno official status87,000-100,000 signers
EsperantoVocabulary from Romance and Germanic languages; phonology from Slavic languagesInternational auxiliary languageestimated 100,000 to 2 million fluent speakers

10,000 to 100,000 speakers

LanguageFamilyOfficial status and where spoken natively by more than 1% of the abaadiNumber of speakers
MaraSino-Tibetan, Kuki-Chin(Central)India- Official in Mara Autonomous District Council and Chin state, Myanmar94,000
AtayalAustronesianTaiwan84,330
South EstonianUralicEstonia80,000
AltayAltaic, TurkicRussia, Mongolia, China71,600
VõroUralic, Baltic-Finnic South EstonianEstonia70 000
NogaiAltaic, TurkicRussia67,800
FaroeseIndo-European, Germanic, NorthOfficial in Faroe Islands. 60,000 - 80,000
Santiago del Estero QuichuaQuechuanSpoken in Argentina66,000 (ethnologue)
PaiwanAustronesianTaiwan61,000
ChamorroAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian (MP), Nuclear MP, Sunda-SulawesiUSA (Guam, Northern Mariana Islands)60,000+
KhakasAltaicRussia~60,000
Scottish GaelicIndo-European, Celtic, GoidelicOfficial in Scotland. 58,652 speakers. Although 92,400 people aged three and over in Scotland had some Gaelic language ability in 2001[33]
Thae Sign LanguageSign LanguageThaeland56,000
OjibweAlgonquianCanada and northern United States55,000
LeoneseIndo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Iberian, Leonese,Spain and Portugal55,000
KalaallisutEskimo-Aleut, InuitOfficial in Denmark (Greenland)54,000
KashubianIndo-European, Slavic, West, PomeranianPoland53,000
Quebec Sign LanguageSign LanguageCanada (Quebec)50,000-60,000
CreeAlgonquinCanada, United States50,000
LanguageFamilyOfficial status and where spoken natively by more than 1% of the abaadiNumber of speakers
SanskritIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryanchiefly India, but also Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal; Used in religious practices in Hinduism.49,736 fluent speakers (1991 Indian census)
Western Argentine GuaraníGuaraneanArgentina, Bolivia, Paraguay48,974 (ethnologue)
Eastern Bolivian GuaraníTupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup IOfficial in Bolivia, Also spoken in Argentina48,974 (ethnologue)
Cook Islands MaoriAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian (MP), Central-Eastern MP, Eastern MP, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear Polynesian, Eastern Polynesian, Central E. Polynesian, TahiticNew Zealand (Cook Islands)42,669
TicunaLanguage isolatePeru, Brazil, Colombia40,000
MeänkieliDialect of Finnish, Baltic-Finnic, UralicSweden40,000—70,000
AguarunaJivaroanOfficial in Peru38,290 (2000 WCD)
BununAustronesianTaiwan38,000
RomanshIndo-European, Romance Official in Switzerland.35,000 native
RutulNortheast CaucasianRussia, Azerbaijan+30,000
LadinIndo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, RhaetianItaly30,000
InuktitutEskimo-Aleut, InuitOfficial in Canada~30,000
LlanitoIndo-European, Romance, Germanic, WestVernacular of Gibraltar. Although widely understood in the surrounding Campo de Gibraltar area, in Spain.30,000 (Ethnologue 2006)
EvenkiAltaic, TungusicRussia, China, Mongolia29,000
NenetsUralicRussia27,273
Mbyá GuaraníTupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní (I)Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay27,000
SiouxSiouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley, DakotanUSA, Canada26,300
Wichí Lhamtés VejozMataco-GuaicuruArgentina25,000 (ethnologue)
AsháninkaArawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-AndineOfficial language of Peru23,750 - 28,500 (2000 SIL)
HuicholUto-AztecanMexico (Nayarit, Zacatecas, Jalisco)20,000
TabaAustronesianIndonesia20,000
WaraoWaraoVenezuela, Guyana18,000 (ethnologue)
NivacléMataco-GuaicuruParaguay18,200 (ethnologue)
AgulNortheast Caucasian, LezgianRussia, Azerbaijan17,373 (1989 Census)
KaiwáBrazil15,512 (Ethnologue)
CherokeeIroquoian, Southern IroquoianUSA (Oklahoma)15,000-22,000
Northern SamiUralicNorway, Finland, Sweden15,000—20,000
MahlIndo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Insular Indo-AryanIndia15,000-20,000
MirandeseIndo-European,Italic,Romance,Italo-Western,Gallo-Iberian,Ibero-Romance,West Iberian, Astur-LeonesePortugal15,000
TsezNorth CaucasianRussia15,000
Wichí Lhamtés GüisnayMataco-GuaicuruArgentina15,000 (ethnologue)
!KungKhoisianNamibia, Angola15,000
Norwegian Sign LanguageSign LanguageNorway4,000-15,000
TuamotuanAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian...France (French Polynesia)14,400
South Ucayali AshéninkaArawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-AndineOfficial in Peru13,000
YaghnobiEastern IranianTajikistan12,500
South African Sign LanguageSign LanguageSouth Africa12,200
Pajonal AshéninkaArawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-AndineOfficial in Peru12,000
Pichis AshéninkaArawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-AndineOfficial in Peru12,000
KhantyUralicRussia12,000
ChiripáTupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup IBrazil, Paraguay11,500 (ethnologue)
ChayahuitaCahuapananOfficial in Peru11,384 (2000, WCD)
TuvaluanAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear Polynesian, Samoic, ElliceanTuvalu, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand10,670
AragoneseIndo-European, RomanceHuesca province (Spain). No official status.10,000 native, 30,000-50,000 with some knowledge (Dated data)
Central Alaskan Yup'ikEskimo-AleutUnited States (Alaska)~10,000
North FrisianIndo-European, Germanic, West Germanic, Anglo-Frisian, FrisianGermany (recognized minority language in Nordfriesland)10,000 (Ethnologue)
MíkmawísimkEastern AlgonquianCanada and United StatesAbout 10,000

Below 10,000

Template:Split section

LanguageFamilyOfficial status and where spoken natively by more than 1% of the abaadiNumber of speakers
Israeli Sign LanguageSign LanguageIsrael~10,000
ShorAltaicRussia9,800
ZuñiIsolateUnited States (Arizona) Zuñi pueblo9,651
HuambisaJivaroanSpoken in Peru9,333 (2000 WCD)
LakotaSiouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley, Dakotan, SiouxUSA8,000-9,000
ChukchiChukotko-KamchatkanRussia7,742
HuitototBora-Huitoto, Huitoto-OcainaOfficial in Peru Also spoken in Colombia7,378-8,162 (Adelaar, 2004)
Southern AymaraAymaranOfficial in Peru Also spoken in Brazil7,212 (2001 SIL)
Ucayali-Yurúa AshéninkaArawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-AndineOfficial in Peru Also spoken in Brazil7,212
Megleno-RomanianIndo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern RomanceGreece, Romania, Macedonia5,000-12,000
VepsUralicRussia6,355
Western Desert LanguagePama-NyunganAustralia6,103 (Ethnologue)
Flemish Sign LanguageSign LanguageBelgium (Flanders and Brussels-Capital Region)6,000
Perené AshéninkaArawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-AndineOfficial in Peru5,500
Achuar-ShiwiarJivaroanOfficial in Peru, Also spoken in Ecuador5,000
Cashibo-CacataiboPanoanPeru5,000 (Ethnologue, 1999)
Finnish Sign LanguageSign LanguageFinland5,000 (estimate)
DolganAltaicRussia~5,000
SaisiyatAustronesianTaiwan4,750
Rapa Nui (Easter Islander)Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Eastern, Eastern, Oceanic, Central-Eastern, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East, Polynesian, Nuclear Polynesian, Eastern PolynesianChile (Rapa Nui (Easter Island))4,650
!XóõKhoisianNamibia, Botswana4,200
Ajyíninka ApurucayaliArawakan, MaipuranOfficial in Peru4,000
AkhvakhNortheast CaucasianRussia (Dagestan)3,500
KoryakChukotko-KamchatkanRussia3,019
JaqaruAymaranOfficial in Peru3,009
Candoshi-ShapraLanguage IsolateOfficial in Peru3,000 (1991, SIL)
YaguePeba-YaguanOfficial in Peru3,000-4,000 (dated)
Kala Lagaw YaPama-NyunganAustralia3,000-4,000
KhinalugNortheast Caucasian languagesAzerbaijan1,500 ~ 4,000
LudicUralicRussia (Karelia)3,000
InupiaqAleutCanada3,500
MansiUralicRussia Khantia-Mansia3,184
CarolinianAustronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Eastern, Eastern, Oceanic, Central-Eastern, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-TrukicUnited States Official in Northern Mariana Islands3,000
WarlpiriPama-NyunganAustralia3,000
GodoberiNortheast CaucasianRussia (Dagestan)3,000
Murui HuitotoWitotoan, Witoto, Witoto Proper, Minica-MuruiOfficial in Peru, also spoken in Colombia2,900 (SIL, 1995)
BoraWitotanOfficial in Peru Also spoken in Colombia2,828
Saterland Frisian
(East Frisian)
Indo-European, Germanic, West Germanic, Anglo-Frisian, FrisianGermany (recognized minority language in Saterland, East Frisia)2,250
11,000 (Ethnologue)
KvenUralicNorway2,000-8,000
CashinahuaPanoanOfficial in Peru Also spoken in Brazil2,000
InuinnaqtunAleutCanada2,000
Lule SamiUralicNorway, Sweden2,000
ArrerntePama-NyunganAustralia1,500
Manx GaelicIndo-European, Celtic, GoidelicIsle of Man1,750
Minica HuitotoWitotoanOfficial in Peru, Also spoken in Colombia1,705 (2000 WCD)
SelkupUralicRussia (Yamalia)1,570
CulinaArauanOfficial in Peru Also spoken in Brazil1,303
ChipayaUru-ChipayaOfficial in Peru1,200
SheHmong-MienChina1,200
ChickasawMuskogeanUnited States1,000
WalmajarriPama-NyunganAustralia1,000
LanguageFamilyOfficial status and where spoken natively by more than 1% of the abaadiNumber of speakers
OttomanAltaic-TurkicTurkey900
Kildin SamiUralicRussia (Murmansk Oblast, Karelia)500
NganasanUralicRussia (Taymyria)500
Southern SamiUralicSweden, Norway500
Inari SamiUralicFinland400
Skolt SamiUralicFinland, Russia (Karelia)400
IngrianUralicRussia (Ingria)300
WashoHokanUnited States (Washoe County, Nevada)252[34]
ComancheUto-AztecanUnited States (Oklahoma)200
HinukhNortheast CaucasianRussia (Dagestan)200
LivonianUralicLatvia (Livonia)150
TobianTrukicPalau (In the states of Hatohobei and Sonsorol and in the southern areas of Palau)≥100
EnetsUralicRussia (Krasnoyarsk Krai)70
Pitkern (Or Pitcairnese)Caribbean CreolePitcairn Island (and New Zealand)≥70
ManchuAltaicNorthern China (Heilongjian province), Southern Russia≥60
Pite SamiUralicSweden, Norway20
Ume SamiUralicSweden, Norway20
VoticUralicRussia≥20
KayardildPama-NyunganAustralia<10
Ter SamiUralicRussia (Murmansk Oblast)10

Duusra websites

References

  1. "Ethnologue". SILHaley. line feed character in |publisher= at position 4 (help)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People". Microsoft Encarta 2006. Retrieved 2007-02-18.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Ranking by Mean Average of the two estimates (Encarta and Ethnologue)
  4. http://www.krysstal.com/spoken.html The 30 Most Spoken Languages of the World
  5. ethnologue (2000). "Hindi". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (14th ed.). Ethnolouge. Text "HINDI: a language of India" ignored (help)
  6. Curtis, Andy. Color, Race, And English Language Teaching: Shades of Meaning. 2006, page 192.
  7. Spanish Language - MSN Encarta
  8. Ethnologue - 1999 WA--source for the second figure)
  9. Instituto Cervantes ("El Mundo" news)
  10. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=arb
  11. http://listverse.com/miscellaneous/top-10-most-spoken-languages-in-the-world/
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Europeans and Languages" (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved 2007-02-18.
  13. ethnologue (2000). "French". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (14th ed.). Ethnolouge. Text "FRENCH: a language of France" ignored (help)
  14. http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/francophonie/francophonie.htm
  15. http://www.pagef30.com/2008/10/french-in-9th-place-with-200-million.html
  16. http://www.ambafrance-au.org/france_australie/spip.php?article2223
  17. http://web.archive.org/web/20101114074922/http://www.france24.com/en/20081018-cheer-french-speakers-francophone-francophonie-nadeau
  18. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/Statement4.htm
  19. Top 30 Language Spoken in the World by Number of Speakers
  20. 20.0 20.1 Ethnologue, Languages of the World
  21. 21.0 21.1 "Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People". Microsoft Encarta 2006. Retrieved 2007-02-18.
  22. sum of 10 dialects; 43 million if all of Southwestern Iranian is included.[1]
  23. 2006 CIA Factbook: Iran 39 M (58%), Afghanistan 15 M (50%), Tajikistan 5.8 M (80%), Uzbekistan 1.2 M (4.4%)
  24. The Latin Union reports 28 million speakers for Romanian, out of whom 24 million are native speakers of the language: Latin Union - The odyssey of languages: ro, es, fr, it, pt; see also Ethnologue report for Romanian
  25. http://ling.cass.cn/fangyan/dituji/LANGUAGE%20ATLAS%20OF%20CHINA.html Theabaadi of Gan speakers is 48 million
  26. "Het Nederlandse taalgebied" (in Dutch). Taalpeil. Retrieved 2007-02-18.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Microsoft Encarta 2006, Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People.
  28. Народы и языки Российской Федерации. статистикаTemplate:Ru icon
  29. Ethnologue 14 on Tatar (version 15 gives data obviously invompatible with this and the next shown source)
  30. Народы и языки Российской Федерации. СтатистикаTemplate:Ru icon
  31. Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. "Ethnologue Report for Pahari-Potwari." Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
  32. Ethnologue: Latvian
  33. "News Release - Scotland's Census 2001 - Gaelic Report" from General Registrar for Scotland website, 10 October 2005. Retrieved 27 December 2007
  34. Language Map Data Center

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