Austria (German: Österreich), sarkari taur se "Republic of Austria", madhya Europe ke ek des hae. Austria ke parrosi des hae Germany, Czechia, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy, Switzerland, aur Liechtenstein. Abhi Austria ke chancellor Werner Faymann hae. 1995 se Austria European Union ke sadasya hae.

Republik Österreich
[[Image:{{{image_flag}}}|125px|center|Jhanda]]
Jhanda
Des ke jaankari
National anthem:"Land der Berge, Land am Strome"
Log ke baare me
Official bhasa:German
Abaadi:
  - Total:{{{populationtotal}}}
Jagah
[[Image:{{{image_location}}}|250px|none|country map]] Hian pe des ke dunia ke map me dekhawa jaawe hai.
Capital City:Vienna
Sab se barraa City:Vienna
Area
  - Total:83.858 km² (ranked 112°)
  - Water:1,3 km² (n/a%)
Politics / Government
Established:27 July 1955
Leader:President: Alexander Van der Bellen
Economy / Money
Paisa ke naam:Euro
International information
Time ke zone:+1
Telephone ke dialing code:+43
Internet domain:.at

Austria ke log German bhasa me baat kare hae, lekin aur kuch log Hungarian, Slovenian aur Croatian bhasa me bhi baat kare hae. Austria ke raajdhaanii Vienna (Wien) hae.

Austria, hajaar saal se bhi purana hae. Iske itihaas ninth century se suruu karaa jaae sake hae jab ki pahile Austrain log uu jagha jiske abhi Austria bola jaae hae me aae ke rahe lagin.

Austria, ek democratic des hae jisme nau state hae: Vorarlberg, the Tyrol, Salzburg, Carinthia, Styria, Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Vienna aur Burgenland. Ii ek neutral des hae jon ki 1955 se United Nations me hae.

Itihaas

Purana jamana

Jon jagha pe abhi Austria hae, me bahut din se admii log rahe hae. Pahila settlers Paleolithic age me, Neanderthal log rahin. Uu log kuch works of art, jaise ki Venus of Willendorf chhorr gain hae. Neolithic age, admii log hian rahat rahin mining kare ke khati jaise ki copper. Ötzi, ek mummy ke Austria aur Italy ke biich me glacier me pawa gais hae. Bronze Age me barraa basti aur fortress uu jagha pe banawa gais hae jahan pe resources rahaa jaise ki nimak ke mine Hallstatt ke nachdik.

Romans ke time

Romans log Austria bhar me bas gain rahaa. Uu log shahar banain jisme se khaas rahaa Carnuntum (Vienna ke nachdik), Virunum (Klagenfurt ke north me) aur Teurnia (Spittal an der Drau ke nachdik).

Nawaa jamana

800 se 1918 talak, Austria ek empire rahaa, jiske raja log House of Habsburg ke rahin. Iske baad ii ek republic hoe gais. Pahila republic 1918 se 1938, Second Republic 1945 se rahaa. 1938 se 1945 talak, Austria, Germany ke ek hissa rahaa.

Geography

Austria jaada kar ke pahaarr waala des hae kahe ki ii Alps me hae. Gharb ke uuncha Alps, sharq ke plains me hoe jaae hae.

Austria ke state

#State (Bundesland)CapitalAreaPopu­lation [1]Rank
1BurgenlandEisenstadt3,966 km²280,3509
2Carinthia (Kärnten)Klagenfurt9,536 km²560,7536
3Lower Austria (Niederösterreich)St. Pölten19,174 km²1,588,5452
4Upper Austria (Oberösterreich)Linz11,980 km²1,405,9863
5SalzburgSalzburg7,154 km²529,0857
6Styria (Steiermark)Graz16,392 km²1,203,9864
7Tyrol (Tirol)Innsbruck12,648 km²698,4725
8VorarlbergBregenz2,601 km²364,6118
9Vienna (Wien)Vienna (Wien)414.90 km²1,660,5341
 
Austrian Parliament

Culture

Music and Arts

Dher jaana maana composers Austria ke rahin jaise ki Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Franz Schubert, Anton Bruckner, Johann Strauss, Sr., Johann Strauss, Jr. aur Gustav Mahler. Nawaa jamana me Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern aur Alban Berg, Second Viennese School ke rahin.

Austria me dher artist rahin jaise ki Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka, Egon Schiele or Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Inge Morath aur Otto Wagner.

Khana

Kuch mashhuur Austrian khana hae Wiener Schnitzel, Schweinsbraten, Kaiserschmarren, Knödel, Sachertorte au Tafelspitz.

Mashhuur Austrians

Scientists

  • Ludwig Boltzmann
  • Ernst Mach
  • Christian Doppler
  • Lise Meitner
  • Erwin Schrödinger
  • Wolfgang Pauli
  • Anton Zeilinger
  • Theodore Billroth
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Alfred Adler

Khel aur Entertainment

  • Hermann Maier
  • Arnold Schwarzenegger
  • Falco
  • Franz Joseph Haydd

Austria ke President ke list (1919 se abhi talak)

First Austrian Republic (1918-1938) ke President
No.NaamPictureBorn-DiedTerm of officeParty
1Karl Seitz (President of the Constituent National Assembly to 10 November 1920, then acting president) 1869-19505 March 1919 – 9 December 1920Social Democratic Party
2Michael Hainisch 1858-19409 December 1920 – 10 December 1928koi party ke nai
3Wilhelm Miklas 1872-195610 December 1928 – 13 March 1938Christian Social Party
Second Austrian Republic (1945 se abhi talak) ke President
No.NaamPictureBorn-DiedTerm of officeParty
1Karl Renner 1870-195029 April 1945 - 31 December 1950Social Democratic Party
2Theodor Körner 1873-195721 June 1951 - 4 January 1957Social Democratic Party
3Adolf Schärf 1890-196522 May 1957 - 28 February 1965Social Democratic Party
4Franz Jonas 1899-19749 June 1965 - 24 April 1974Social Democratic Party
5Rudolf Kirchschläger 1915-20008 July 1974 - 8 July 1986Social Democratic Party
6Kurt Waldheim 1918-20078 July 1986 - 8 July 1992Austrian People's Party
7Thomas Klestil 932-20048 July 1992 - 6 July 2004Austrian People's Party
8Heinz Fischer *19388 July 2004 - 8 July 2016Social Democratic Party
9Alexander Van der Bellen *194426 January 2017 se abhi talakThe Greens

Chapa ke gallery

References

  1. "Population statistics". www.statistik.at. Retrieved 2007-02-24.

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