Australia, Pacific Ocean aur Indian Ocean ke biich me Southern hemisphere me. Iske official naam Commonwealth of Australia hae. Australia ke area, dunia ke des me se 6th sab se barraa hae. Bahut log Australia ke "lucky country" bole hae. Australia ke continent aur New Zealand ke islands ke saathe me Australasia bola jaawe hae. Nagich ke island ke Oceania bola jaawe hae.

Commonwealth of Australia
FlagCoat of arms
JhandaCoat of arms
Des ke jaankari
National anthem:Advance Australia Fair
Log ke baare me
Official bhasa:English
Abaadi:
  - Total:{{{populationtotal}}}
Jagah
country map
Hian pe des ke dunia ke map me dekhawa jaawe hai.
Capital City:Canberra
Sab se barraa City:Sydney
Area
  - Total:7,741,220 km² (ranked 6)
Politics / Government
Established:Commonwealth formed: 1 January 1901

Statute of Westminster 1931

Leader:Queen Elizabeth II represented by Governor General Sir Peter Cosgrove
Prime Minister: Malcolm Turnbull
Economy / Money
Paisa ke naam:Australian dollar ($)
International information
Time ke zone:various
Telephone ke dialing code:61
Internet domain:.au

Geography

 
Map of Australia

Australia ke continent aur Tasmania, bahut din pahile dunia ke aur des se alag hoe gais rahaa. Ii kaaran se dher janwar aur perr khali Australia me pawa jaawe hae. Ii janwar me hae kangeroo, koala, emu, kookaburra, wombat, echidna aur platypus.

Admii log Australia pahila dafe 50,000 saal pahile pahuchin. Australia ke native ke Australian Aborigines bolaa jaawe hae.

Australian me Britain ke log aae ke basin, aur suruu me chhe colony rahaa, lekin 1 January 1901 me ii sab colony ek hoe ke Australia des banin. Australia ke pahila prime minister Edmund Barton rahaa. Australia, United Nations aur Commonwealth of Nations ke member hae. Ii des parliamentary democracy aur constitutional monarchy hae aur England ke Rani iske Head of State hae.

Regions aur cities

Australia me chhe state, dui territory aur dher chhota chhota island hae. State ke naam New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, aur Western Australia hae. Dui territory ke nam Northern Territory aur Australian Capital Territory (ACT) hae.

July 2007 me Australia ke abaadi 21 million rahaa. Australia ke jaada log city, jaise ki Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Darwin, Hobart aur Adelaide me rahe hae. Des ke capital Canberra hae, lekin sab se barraa city Sydney hae.

Jab ki Australia ek barraa des hae, isme ke jaada jagha jhuura hae. Continent ke biich waala jagha desert hae. Khali east aur south ke samundar ke kinare waala jagha me kheti hoe hae.

Itihaas

Aboriginal log

Australian Aboriginal log Australia me 50,000 saal pahile aae rahin. 1788 me English log ke aae se pahile Aboriginal log janwar ke maar ke aur fal bator ke jiyat rahin. Ii rakam se sab log ke khaawe khatir dher khaana rahat rahaa. Ek, dui saal ke baad Abroginal log grass aur chhota perr me aagi lagae dewet rahin. Iske matlab ii rahaa ki grass fir jame lagat rahaa lekin brraa perr nai jame sakaa. Kangaroo, jon ki samthar jamin me rahat rahin Abroginal log khatir achchhaa khana rahaa. Abroginal logan me admii log ke naam janwar ke naam se rakkhat rahin aur iske baad uu janwar ke nai khawat rahin. Ii rakam se uu log ke abaadi jaada nai howat rahaa.

Abroginal log grass ke jhoprri chorr ke aur koi rakam ke ghar nai banawat rahin. Uu log diwal nai banawat rahin kahe ki Australia me ghorra, gaiya aur bherra nai rahin. Abroginal log metal nai use karat rahin aur uu log ke moto lakrri ke banaa rahat rahaa. Abroginal log ii nai sochat rahin ki jamin uu logan ke hae lekin uu logan jamin ke rahin.

Terra Australis

1600s me Dutch merchants log Indonesia se trade karat rahin, jon ki Australia ke north me hae aur kabhi kabhi Dutch jahaaj Australia aae jawat rahaa. Indonesia ke Dutch Governor, van Diemen, Abel Tasman ke ek voyage of discovery me bhejis jab ki uu Tasmania paais, jiske naam uu Van Diemen's Land rakis. Iske naam baadme badal ke Tasman ke naam se Tasmania rakha gais.

British Government ii jaanat rahaa ki south me ek barraa jagha hae jiske koi goraa paais nai hae. Uu logan Captain James Cook ke Pacific Ocean bhejin. Uske jahaaj me kuch jaane maane scientists, jaise ki Sir Joseph Banks aur Dr Solander rahin jon ki Tahiti se Venus ke Suraj ke aage se jaate dekhe maangat rahin. Captain Cook ke chuppe se batawa gais rahaa ki uu "Terra Australis" (south ke bhaari continent ke khoje.

Ii khoj me Cook se safalta mila kahe ki uu New Zealand ke paae liis aur uske right round sail karis. Jab uu west ke bagal sail karis tab use jamin mila jiske you "New South Wales" naam rakhis. Huan pe uske janwar au perr mila jiske uu kabhi dekhis nai rahaa aur uu logan dher specimen ke bator ke England lae gais.

Captain Cook, Abroginal log ke bhi dekhis. Uu dekhis ki Abroginal log kon rakam se machchhri pakrre, janwar ke maare aur bia aur fal ke batore. Lekin koi ghar, nai to fence nai dekhae diis kahe ki Abroginal log jamin ke own nai karat rahin lekin ii biswas karat rahin ki uu logan jamin ke hae.

Settlement

1700s me England se jaheli log ke America bheja jawat rahaa, lekin 1783 me jab America independent hoe gais tab jaheli log ke New South Wales bheje ke decide karaa gais. 1788 me 11 jahaaj ke First Fleet, Portsmouth se jaheli, lascar (sailors), soldier aur dui saal bhar ke khana lae ke sail karis26 January 1788 ke nawaa des me jhanda charrhawa gais aur New South Wales ke England ke ek colony banawa gais. Iske baad Norfolk Island aur Tasmania me bhi English log jaae ke basin.hey peolpe

Exploration

 
Pulpit Rock, Blue Mountains

Kahe ki Australia bahut barraa continent hae, tab pahile ke din me bahut log bhitar ke area ke exploration khatir gain rahaa. 1813 me Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson aur 17 year-old called William Charles Wentworth Blue Mountains ke paar kar ke kheti kare waala achchhaa jamin paain. Hian pe,, Sydney se 100 mile duur, Bathurst town banawa gais. Kuch aur log , jaise ki Captain Charles Sturt, Burke and Wills, Ludwig Leichhardt aur Major Thomas Mitchell bhittar waala jagha ke explore karin.

Politics

Australia me chhe state aur dui territory hae. Sab state ke aapan Parliament hae. Australia ke Parliament Canberra me baithe hae.Australia ke Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, jon ki Australian Labour Party ke leader hae, hae. Australia ke HEad of State , Britain ke rani hae aur uske Australia me Governor General repesent kare hae.

Australia ke Prime Minister ke list

Niche ke suchi me Prime Ministers of Australia hae jin logan ke naam, janam ke taarik, janam ke jagha, kab pahila dafe Parliament me chuna gais rahaa, political party, electoral constituency, office le ke raarik, office chhorre ke taarik, parliament chhorre ke taarik (where applicable) aaur maut ke taarik (where applicable).

Party ke naam jon ki hian pe dewa gais hae, uu party ke naam hae jiske member Prim Minister rahaa, jab ki uu elect bhais rahaa.

List

      Protectionist      Labor      Free Trade      Commonwealth Liberal      National Labor/Nationalist/United Australia      Country      Liberal

No.NaamJanam ke tarikJanam ke jaghaPahila electionPartyElectorateAssumed officeLeft officeLeft ParliamentMautRef
1Sir Edmund Barton 18 January 1849Sydney29 March 1901ProtectionistHunter, New South Wales1 January 190124 September 1903resigned
30 September 1903
7 January 1920[1]
2Alfred Deakin 3 August 1856Melbourne29 March 1901ProtectionistBallaarat, Vic124 September 190327 April 1904(see below)(see below)[2]
3Chris Watson 9 April 1867Valparaíso, Chile29 March 1901LaborBland, NSW27 April 190418 August 1904retired
19 February 1910
18 November 1941[3]
4Sir George Reid 25 February 1845Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland29 March 1901Free TradeEast Sydney, NSW18 August 19045 July 1905resigned
24 November 1909
13 September 1918[4]
-Alfred Deakin(see above)(see above)(see above)(see above)(see above)(see above)5 July 190513 November 1908(see below)(see below)
5Andrew Fisher 29 August 1862Crosshouse, East Ayrshire, Scotland29 March 1901LaborWide Bay, Qld13 November 19082 June 1909(see below)(see below)[5]
-Alfred Deakin(see above)(see above)(see above)(see above)Commonwealth Liberal(see above)2 June 190929 April 1910retired
23 April 1913
7 October 1919
-Andrew Fisher(see above)(see above)(see above)(see above)(see above)(see above)29 April 191024 June 1913(see below)(see below)
6Joseph Cook 7 December 1860Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire, England29 March 1901Commonwealth LiberalParramatta, NSW24 June 191317 September 1914resigned
11 November 1921
30 July 1947[6]
-Andrew Fisher(see above)(see above)(see above)(see above)(see above)(see above)17 September 191427 October 1915resigned
27 October 1915
22 October 1928
7Billy Hughes 25 September 1862London, England29 March 1901LaborWest Sydney, NSW27 October 191514 November 1916(see below)(see below)[7]
-Billy Hughes(see above)(see above)(see above)(see above)National Labor(see above)14 November 191617 February 1917(see below)(see below)
-Billy Hughes(see above)(see above)(see above)(see above)NationalistBendigo, Vic17 February 19179 February 1923died
28 October 1952
28 October 1952
8Stanley Bruce 15 April 1883Melbourne11 May 1918NationalistFlinders, Vic9 February 192322 October 1929lost his seat while PM 12 October 1929; re-elected 19 December 1931; resigned 6 October 1933 25 August 1967[8]
9James Scullin 18 September 1876Trawalla, Victoria13 April 1910LaborYarra, Vic22 October 19296 January 1932retired
31 October 1949
28 January 1953[9]
10Joseph Lyonsfile:Josephlyons.jpg15 September 1879Circular Head, Tasmania12 October 1929United AustraliaWilmot, Tas6 January 19327 April 1939died
7 April 1939
7 April 1939[10]
11Sir Earle Page 8 August 1880Grafton, New South Wales13 December 1919CountryCowper, NSW7 April 193926 April 1939defeated
9 December 1961
20 December 1961[11]
12Robert Menzies 20 December 1894Jeparit, Victoria15 September 1934United AustraliaKooyong, Vic26 April 193928 August 1941(see below)(see below)[12]
13Arthur Fadden 13 April 1895Ingham, Queensland19 December 1936CountryDarling Downs, Qld28 August 19417 October 1941retired
14 October 1958
21 April 1973[13]
14John Curtin 8 January 1885Creswick, Victoria17 November 1928LaborFremantle, WA7 October 19415 July 1945died
5 July 1945
5 July 1945
15Frank Forde 18 July 1890Mitchell, Queensland16 December 1922LaborCapricornia, Qld6 July 194513 July 1945retired
28 September 1946
28 January 1983
16Ben Chifley 22 September 1885Bathurst, New South Wales17 November 1928LaborMacquarie, NSW13 July 194519 December 1949died
13 June 1951
13 June 1951
-Sir Robert Menzies(see above)(see above)(see above)(see above)Liberal(see above)19 December 194926 January 1966resigned
17 February 1966
15 May 1978
17Harold Holt 5 August 1908Sydney17 August 1935LiberalHiggins, Vic26 January 196619 December 1967217 December 196717 December 1967
18John McEwen 29 March 1900Chiltern, Victoria15 September 1934CountryMurray, Vic19 December 196710 January 1968resigned
1 February 1971
20 November 1980
19John Gorton 9 September 1911Melbourne22 February 1950 3LiberalHiggins, Vic10 January 196810 March 1971retired
11 November 19754
19 May 2002
20William McMahon 23 February 1908Sydney10 December 1949LiberalLowe, NSW10 March 19715 December 1972resigned
4 January 1982
31 March 1988
21Gough Whitlam11 July 1916Melbourne29 November 1952LaborWerriwa, NSW5 December 197211 November 1975resigned
31 July 1978
still living
22Malcolm Fraser 21 May 1930Melbourne10 December 1955LiberalWannon, Vic11 November 197511 March 1983resigned
31 March 1983
still living
23Bob Hawke 9 December 1929Bordertown, South Australia18 October 1980LaborWills, Vic11 March 198320 December 1991rgf fesigned
20 February 1992
still living
24Paul Keating 18 January 1944Sydney[[Australian federal election, 1969yj20 December 199111 March 1996resigned
23 April 1996
still living
25John Howardfile:Vcbf yj4LiberalBennelong, NSW11 March 19963 December 2007lost his own seat while PM
24 November 2007
still living
26Kevin Rudd 21 September 1957Nambour, Queensland3 October 1998LaborGriffith, QLD3 December 2007Incumbent-still living

Demographics

Country of Birth

 
Countries of birth of Australian estimated resident abaadi, 2006.
Source:Australian Bureau of Statistics[14]

Australian ke Bureau of Statistics ([2]) se ii pataa lage hae ki mid-2006 me 4,956,863 Australia me rahe waala logan Australia se bahaar paida bhaen rahaa. I Australia ke abaadi ke 24% hae. Australia me rahe waala ii des me paida bhian rahaa:

Paida hoe waala desEstimated Resident Population[15]


United Kingdom1,153,264
New Zealand476,719
Peoples Republic of China279,447
Italy220,469
Vietnam180,352
India153,579
Phillipines135,619
Greece125,849
South Africa118,816
Germany114,921
Malaysia103,947
Serbia96,895
Netherlands86,950
Lebanon86,599
Republic of Macedonia83,951
Sri Lanka70,908
Indonesia67,952
USA64,832
Poland59,221
Fiji58,815
Ireland57,338
Croatia56,540
Pakistan19,768
Bosnia and Herzegovina19,000
Bangladesh13,751

Indigenous abaadis

2001 ke Census me 366,436 loag apne ke Aboriginal (2.07% of all respondents) batain, 26,088 batain ki uu logan Torres Strait Islander (0.15%) hae aur 17,636 batain ki uu logan duuno Aboriginal aur Torres Strait Islanders (0.10%) hae.

Ethnic groups

Australia ke 21 million log me se jaada log colonial-era settlers aur post-Federation Europe ke migrant ke descendend hae, aur ii kaaran se Australia ke ke abaadi ke 85% European descent ke hae. Bahut generations se sab se jaada colonial-era settlers aur post-Federation immigrants khaali British Isles se awat rahin, aur abhi talak Australia ke abaadi jaada kar ke British aur Irish descent ke hae.

World War II ke baad, Australia ke abaadi has more than doubled, spurred by large-scale European immigration during the immediate post-war decades. Non-European immigration, mostly from Asia and the Middle East, has increased significantly since the 1970s; due in large part to the abolition of the White Australia Policy.

In the 2006 Australian Census [3] residents could nominate up to two ethnic groups to define their ancestry. Proportionate to the Australian resident abaadi, the most commonly nominated ancestries were:

Religion and belief

Template:Main article

    The category of "No Religion" includes non-theistic beliefs such as humanism, atheism, agnosticism and rationalism. A fifth sub-category is "No Religion - nfd" ("nfd" = no further definition). The Australian Bureau of Statistics does not provide statistics on how many people belong in each sub-category on "No Religion".
    The Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001 Census Dictionary statement on religious affiliation states the purpose for gathering such information:
    Data on religious affiliation are used for such purposes as planning educational facilities, aged persons' care and other social services provided by religion-based organisations; the location of church buildings; the assigning of chaplains to hospitals, prisons, armed services and universities; the allocation of time on public radio and other media; and sociological research.

As in many Western countries, the level of active participation in church worship is much lower than would be indicated by the proportion of Christians indicated in the ABS statistics; weekly attendance at church services is about 1.5 million, about 7.5% of the abaadi.[16]

Languages

LanguageSpeakers
Only English15,581,333
Italian316,895
Greek252,226
Cantonese244,553
Arabic243,662
Mandarin220,600
Vietnamese194,863
Spanish98,001
Filipino + Tagalog92,331
German75,634
Hindi70,011
Macedonian67,835
Croatian63,612
Australian Aboriginal Languages55,705
Korean54,623
Turkish53,857
Polish53,389
Serbian52,534
French43,216
Indonesian42,036
Maltese36,514
Russian36,502
Dutch36,183
Japanese35,111
Tamil32,700
Sinhalese29,055
Samoan28,525
Portuguese25,779
Khmer24,715
Assyrian23,526
Punjabi23,164
Persian22,841
Hungarian21,565
Bengali20,223
Urdu19,288
Afrikaans16,806
Bosnian15,743

Historical abaadi estimates

YearPopulationFive Year
 % change
17888590-0
17984,5880-0
180810,2630-0
181825,8590-0
182858,1970-0
1838151,8680-0
1848332,3280-0
18581,050,8280-0
18681,539,5520-0
18782,092,1640-0
18882,981,6770-0
18983,664,7150-0
19013,788,1230-0
19064,059,08307.20
19114,489,545010.60
19164,943,173010.10
19215,455,136010.40
19266,056,360011.00
19316,526,48507.80
19366,778,37203.40
19417,109,89804.90
19467,465,15705.00
19518,421,775012.80
19569,425,563011.90
1961*10,548,267011.90
196611,599,498010.00
197113,067,265012.70
197614,033,08307.40
198114,923,26006.30
198616,018,35007.30
199117,284,036012.80
199618,310,71405.90
200119,413,24006.00
200620,848,76007.40

Bahaari jorr

References

  1. Rutledge, Martha. "Barton, Sir Edmund (1849 - 1920)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  2. Norris, R. (1981). "Deakin, Alfred (1856 - 1919)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2008-10-21 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  3. Nairn, Bede (1990). "Watson, John Christian (1867 - 1941)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2008-10-21 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  4. McMinn, W. G. "Reid, Sir George Houstoun (1845 - 1918)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  5. Murphy, D. J. "Fisher, Andrew (1862 - 1928)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  6. Crowley, F. K. "Cook, Sir Joseph (1860 - 1947)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  7. Fitzhardinge, L. F. "Hughes, William Morris (Billy) (1862 - 1952)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
  8. Radi, Heather (1979). "Bruce, Stanley Melbourne [Viscount Bruce] (1883 - 1967)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2008-10-21 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  9. Robertson, J. R. (1988). "Scullin, James Henry (1876 - 1953)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2008-10-21 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  10. Hart, P. R. (1986). "Lyons, Joseph Aloysius (1879 - 1939)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2008-10-21 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  11. Bridge, Carl. "Page, Sir Earle Christmas Grafton (1880 - 1961)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2008-10-21 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  12. Martin, A. W. "Menzies, Sir Robert Gordon (Bob) (1894 - 1978)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2008-11-22 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  13. Cribb, Margaret Bridson. "Fadden, Sir Arthur William (1894 - 1973)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 2008-11-22 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  14. Australian Bureau of Statistics, accessed 9 December 2007
  15. [1]. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2006. Last accessed November 18, 2007.
  16. NCLS releases latest estimates of church attendance, National Church Life Survey, Media release, 28 February 2004

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