Rasputitsa - Wiki English
Wiki EnglishWiki DeutschWiki Nederlands


Rasputitsa is a season of the year when travel on unpaved roads or across country becomes difficult, owing to muddy conditions from rain or melting snow.

Rasputitsa (Russian: распу́тица, IPA: [rɐsˈputʲɪtsə]) is a season of the year when travel on unpaved roads or across country becomes difficult, owing to muddy conditions from rain or melting snow.

Rasputitsa (Sea of Mud), 1894, Alexei Savrasov


Rasputitsa is derived from the root: путь (put, [putʼ]), means "road" or "way" or "travel"; + рас- (ras, [ʀas]) - is a word prefix, means "discrepancy" or "divergence"; + -иц (-its, [it͡s]) is a diminutive suffix; + а ([a]) is a feminine noun ending. In Russia, the term refers to two periods during the year – the spring and autumn – and also refers to road conditions during such a period.[1]

The Ukrainian equivalent бездоріжжя, bezdorizhzhia, '"roadlessness"' ( pronunciation ) usually refers to spring, and occasionally to autumn, when rain and/or melting snow on unpaved roads, tracks, paths, or any poorly-drained off-road area turns the route into impassable deep mud.[2]

Similar terms are Swedish menföre "bad going" and Finnish kelirikko "broken state of roads", but both also apply to when water is too iced over for boats but not strong enough to cross on foot or in other vehicles. Finnish eastern dialects also have the loanword rospuutto (IPA: [ˈrospuːtːo]), which has the same usage as rasputitsa.[3]


Village street near Moscow, November 1941
Thick snow cover and waterlogged soil in Sokol, Vologda Oblast, October 2012
A Russian tank stuck in mud during Russian invasion of Ukraine in March 2022

The term is applied to muddy road conditions in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, which are caused by the poor drainage of underlying clay-laden soils found in the region. Roads are subject to weight limitations and closures during the period in certain districts of Russia. The phenomenon was a hindrance in the early 20th century in the Soviet Union since 40% of rural villages were not served by paved roads.[1]

Rasputitsa seasons of Russia are well known as a defensive advantage in wartime.[4][5] Common nicknames include "General Mud" and "Marshal Mud". A spring thaw probably saved Novgorod from conquest and sacking during the 13th-century Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus'.[6] The mud was a great hindrance during the French invasion of Russia in 1812.[4][5]

On the Eastern Front during the Second World War, the months-long muddy period slowed the German advance into the Soviet Union during the Battle of Moscow (October 1941 to January 1942) and may have helped save the Soviet capital from German occupation.[7] The advent of Blitzkrieg had the disadvantage that while tanks could operate effectively in summer or in winter, they proved less useful in spring and autumn,[8] when the functioning of an efficient railway system came into its own.[9]

Prior to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, some analysts identified the logistical challenges of the mud season as a likely hindrance to any large-scale invasion in spring.[10] When Russia crossed the border, many of its mobile units found themselves stranded in fields and limited to major roads, where resistance and logistical issues significantly slowed the advance toward Kyiv and elsewhere.[11][12]

See also


This article uses material from the Wikipedia English article Rasputitsa, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license ("CC BY-SA 3.0"); additional terms may apply. (view authors). Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.
#Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Wiki (DUHOCTRUNGQUOC.VN) is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.

🔥 Trending searches on Wiki English:

Main PagePaul O'GradyChatGPT2023 Covenant School shootingKeanu ReevesCleopatraYouTubeMary MallonDeaths in 2023Humza YousafList of American films of 2023Alexandra GrantBlackout cakeLionel MessiThe Night AgentWrestleMania 39XXX (film series)Gwyneth PaltrowCristiano RonaldoAsteroid CityJohn Wick (film)InstagramArgentina national football teamThe Mandalorian (season 3)List of mass shootings in the United States in 2023The MandalorianCuraçaoMelissa Joan HartJennifer SymeThe Last of Us (TV series)Justine SiegemundGabriel BassoVivian DsenaSuccession (TV series)Waco siegeUnited StatesRama NavamiCuraçao national football teamList of top international men's football goal scorers by countryRobb Elementary School shootingLance ReddickUEFA Euro 2024 qualifying2023 Indian Premier LeagueLuciane BuchananXXXTentacionJustine BatemanSexI See You (2019 film)Pathaan (film)Ted LassoAdam SandlerProteus (video game)Raghav ChadhaGirish BapatWes AndersonSandy Hook Elementary School shootingOpenAIIndian Premier League2023 Karnataka Legislative Assembly electionDaisy Jones & The SixFacebookIndiaPedro PascalRiley KeoughAnsel AdamsSergio ErmottiYellowjackets (TV series)Jennifer FichterScott McTominayInternet🡆 More
/** SHOW / HIDE SECTION**/function mfTempOpenSection(getID) {var x = document.getElementById("mf-section-"+getID); if (x.style.display === "none") { x.style.display = ""; } else { x.style.display = "none"; }}