Wiki Afrikaans 2022: Carles Puigdemont

The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet represents pronunciations of Italian in Wikipedia articles.

See Italian phonology for a more thorough overview of the sounds of Italian. There is also an Italian pronunciation guide at Wiktionary.

To learn more about the correspondence between spelling and sounds, see Italian orthography.

IPAExamplesEnglish approximation
bbanca, cibobike
ddove, idradone
dzzaino, azalea, mezzo[2][3]dads
gelo, giù, magia, judo, gadget[4]job
ffatto, cifra, phonfast
ɡgatto, agro, glifo, ghettogas
kcosa, acuto, finché, quei, kiwi[4]scar
llato, telalip
ʎfigli, glielo, maglia[3]billion
mmano, amare, input, anfibio[5]mother
nnano, punto, pensare[5]nest
ŋunghia, anche, dunque[5]sing
ɲgnocco, ogni[3]canyon
pprimo, ampio, apertura[4]spin
rRoma, quattro, mortetrilled r
ssano, scusa, presentire, pastosorry
ʃscena, scià, pesci, flash, chic[3]shoe
ttranne, mito, altro, thai[4]star
tszio, sozzo, marzo[2][3]cats
certo, ciao, farmacia, chipcheck
vvado, povero, wattvent
zsbirro, presentare, asmazipper
Non-native consonants
hhobby, hertz[4][6]house
θThatcher, Pérez[4][7]thing
xkhamsin, Bach, jota[8]loch (Scottish English)
ʒFuji, abat-jour, garage, casual[4]vision
IPAExamplesEnglish approximation
aalto, sarà, must, clownfather
evero, perché, liaisonhey
ɛelica, cioè, cash, play, spreadbed
iviso, sì, zia, feed, team, sexyski
oombra, otto, show, coachtow (American English), lord (RP)
ɔotto, sarò, Seanoff (RP)
uusi, ragù, tuo, look, tourrule
Non-native vowels
øviveur, goethiano, Churchill[10]murder (RP)
yparure, brûlé, Führer[11]future (Scottish English)
IPAExamplesEnglish approximation
jieri, saio, più, Jesi, yacht, newsyou
wuova, guado, qui, week-endwine
ˈCennini [tʃenˈniːni]primary stress
ˌaltamente [ˌaltaˈmente]secondary stress[12]
.continuo [konˈtiːnu.o]syllable break
ːprimo [ˈpriːmo]long vowel[13]


  1. If consonants are doubled after a vowel, they are geminated: all consonants may be geminated except for Sjabloon:IPAslink. In IPA, gemination is represented by doubling the consonant (fatto /ˈfatto/, mezzo /ˈmɛddzo/) or by using the length marker Sjabloon:Angbr. There is also the sandhi of syntactic gemination: va via /ˌva vˈviːa/).
  2. 2,0 2,1 Sjabloon:Angbr represents both /ts/ and /dz/. The article on Italian orthography explains how they are used.
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 3,3 3,4 /dz/, /ts/, /ʎ/, /ɲ/ and /ʃ/ are always geminated after a vowel.
  4. 4,0 4,1 4,2 4,3 4,4 4,5 4,6 In Tuscany Sjabloon:IPAblink, Sjabloon:IPAblink, Sjabloon:IPAblink and Sjabloon:IPAblink are the common allophones of vowel-following single /k/, /p/, /t/ and /dʒ/.
  5. 5,0 5,1 5,2 The nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, the n in /nɡ/ ~ /nk/ is a velar Sjabloon:IPAblink, and the one in /nf/ ~ /nv/ is the labiodental Sjabloon:IPAblink, but for simplicity, Sjabloon:Angbr is used here. A nasal before /p/, /b/ and /m/ is always the labial Sjabloon:IPAblink.
  6. /h/ is usually dropped.
  7. /θ/ is usually pronounced as Sjabloon:IPAblink in English loanwords, and Sjabloon:IPAblink, Sjabloon:IPAblink (if spelled Sjabloon:Angbr) or Sjabloon:IPAblink (if spelled Sjabloon:Angbr or Sjabloon:Angbr) in Spanish ones.
  8. In Spanish loanwords, /x/ is usually pronounced as Sjabloon:IPAblink, Sjabloon:IPAblink or dropped. In German, Arabic and Russian ones, it is usually pronounced Sjabloon:IPAblink.
  9. Italian contrasts seven monophthongs in stressed syllables. Open-mid vowels /ɛ, ɔ/ can appear only if the syllable is stressed (coperto /koˈpɛrto/, quota /ˈkwɔːta/), close-mid vowels /e, o/ are found elsewhere (Boccaccio /bokˈkattʃo/, amore /aˈmoːre/). Close and open vowels /i, u, a/ are unchanged in unstressed syllables, but word-final unstressed /i/ may become approximant Sjabloon:IPAblink before vowels, which is known as synalepha (pari età /ˌparj eˈta/).
  10. Open-mid Sjabloon:IPAblink or close-mid Sjabloon:IPAblink if it is stressed but usually Sjabloon:IPAblink if it is unstressed. May be replaced by Sjabloon:IPAblink (stressed) or Sjabloon:IPAblink (stressed or unstressed).
  11. /y/ is often pronounced as Sjabloon:IPAblink or [ju].
  12. Since Italian has no distinction between heavier or lighter vowels (like the English o in conclusion vs o in nomination), a defined secondary stress, even in long words, is extremely rare.
  13. Stressed vowels are long in non-final open syllables: fato [ˈfaːto] ~ fatto [ˈfatto].

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